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Table 3 Odds Ratios from Weighted Logistic Regression Predicting Influenza Vaccination by Race/Ethnicity, 2019 BRFSSa

From: Structural inequities in seasonal influenza vaccination rates

  NH White N = 221,628 NH Black N = 20,555 Hispanic N = 18,896 Asian N = 5516 American Indian and Alaska Native N = 4439 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander N = 957
  P value P value P value P value P value P value
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Age < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.010 0.002 0.783
1.02 (1.01, 1.02) 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) 1.01 (1.01, 1.02) 1.01 (1.00, 1.02) 1.02 (1.01, 1.02) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
Sex < 0.001 0.016 < 0.001 0.215 0.011 0.153
 Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Male 0.79 (0.77, 0.82) 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) 0.80 (0.71, 0.91) 0.87 (0.70, 1.08) 0.72 (0.55, 0.93) 0.68 (0.40, 1.15)
Education < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.096 0.024 0.476
 Less than high school 0.42 (0.38, 0.46) 0.75 (0.60, 0.93) 0.79 (0.65, 0.96) 1.46 (0.62, 3.43) 0.75 (0.46, 1.20) 0.46 (0.16, 1.34)
 High school graduate 0.54 (0.51, 0.56) 0.71 (0.61, 0.83) 0.68 (0.57, 0.81) 0.74 (0.54, 1.02) 0.59 (0.40, 0.88) 0.90 (0.42, 1.92)
 Some college 0.64 (0.61, 0.66) 0.80 (0.69, 0.91) 0.77 (0.65, 0.92) 0.78 (0.57, 1.05) 0.59 (0.41, 0.85) 0.74 (0.37, 1.51)
 College graduate or more 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Income < 0.001 0.156 0.331 0.259 0.933 0.724
  < $25,000 0.89 (0.84, 0.93) 1.01 (0.86, 1.20) 1.18 (0.99, 1.40) 0.86 (0.62, 1.20) 1.12 (0.77, 1.62) 1.22 (0.62, 2.39)
 $25 – $49,999 0.93 (0.88, 0.97) 1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 1.08 (0.91, 1.29) 0.72 (0.52, 0.99) 1.10 (0.72, 1.68) 1.30 (0.67, 2.53)
 $50 – $74,999 0.92 (0.88, 0.97) 0.89 (0.74, 1.06) 1.07 (0.86, 1.32) 0.88 (0.63, 1.21) 1.14 (0.70, 1.84) 1.64 (0.66, 4.09)
  ≥ $75,000 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Divisionsb < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.949 0.003 0.173
 New England 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Middle Atlantic 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 0.85 (0.66, 1.10) 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) 0.86 (0.57, 1.31) 1.28 (0.54, 3.04) 0.380.09, 1.53)
 East North Central 0.81 (0.76, 0.85) 0.57 (0.45, 0.73) 0.75 (0.60, 0.93) 1.14 (0.76, 1.71) 0.92 (0.42, 2.03) 0.45 (0.09, 2.40)
 West North Central 1.03 (0.98, 1.09) 0.90 (0.69, 1.17) 0.97 (0.77, 1.21) 1.08 (0.72, 1.60) 1.69 (0.85, 3.34) 1.92 (0.48, 7.73)
 South Atlantic 0.93 (0.88, 0.99) 0.75 (0.60, 0.93) 0.68 (0.53, 0.87) 1.02 (0.68, 1.53) 1.14 (0.57, 2.27) 0.89 (0.25, 3.09)
 East South Central 0.86 (0.80, 0.92) 0.72 (0.57, 0.91) 1.32 (0.87, 1.99) 0.84 (0.36, 1.94) 1.01 (0.48, 2.13) 0.42 (0.11, 1.17)
 West South Central 0.87 (0.80, 0.95) 0.79 (0.60, 1.04) 1.00 (0.78, 1.28) 0.95 (0.57, 1.58) 1.43 (0.68, 2.98) 0.89 (0.17, 4.53)
 Mountain 0.84 (0.79, 0.89) 0.72 (0.53, 1.00) 0.81 (0.66, 0.98) 0.92 (0.58, 1.46) 2.14 (1.10, 4.19) 0.31 (0.09, 1.03)
 Pacific 0.84 (0.78, 0.90) 0.67 (0.49, 0.91) 0.82 (0.68, 1.00) 1.04 (0.73, 1.46) 1.40 (0.68, 2.88) 0.62 (0.24, 1.63)
Health Insurance < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.049 0.001 0.152
 Yes 1.00 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 No 0.41 (0.38, 0.44) 0.61 (0.49, 0.76) 0.59 (0.50, 0.69) 0.63 (0.40, 0.99) 0.45 (0.28, 0.71) 0.54 (0.23, 1.26)
Primary Care Doctor < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
 Yes 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 No 0.49 (0.47, 0.52) 0.53 (0.45, 0.63) 0.54 (0.47, 0.63) 0.56 (0.42, 0.74) 0.60 (0.45, 0.81) 0.23 (0.12, 0.44)
Delayed Care due to Cost < 0.001 0.003 < 0.001 0.145 0.040 0.971
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 0.73 (0.68, 0.77) 0.79 (0.68, 0.92) 0.65 (0.55, 0.76) 0.76 (0.52, 1.10) 0.70 (0.50, 0.98) 0.98 (0.41, 2.36)
Asthma < 0.001 < 0.001 0.018 0.457 0.017 0.901
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.20 (1.14, 1.26) 1.29 (1.12, 1.50) 1.23 (1.04, 1.45) 1.14 (0.80, 1.62) 1.56 (1.08, 2.25) 1.04 (0.57, 1.91)
CVD < 0.001 0.377 0.158 0.127 0.078 0.202
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.13 (1.07, 1.20) 1.08 (0.91, 1.27) 1.19 (0.94, 1.51) 1.55 (0.88, 2.72) 1.41 (0.96, 2.07) 1.61 (0.78, 3.34)
Hypertension < 0.001 < 0.001 0.060 0.070 0.195 0.165
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.27 (1.23, 1.32) 1.28 (1.14, 1.44) 1.15 (0.99, 1.34) 1.31 (0.98, 1.77) 1.22 (0.90, 1.65) 1.48 (0.85, 2.58)
BMI 0.235 0.910 0.627 0.412 0.174 0.469
 Normal/under 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Overweight 0.96 (0.93, 1.01) 0.98 (0.85, 1.14) 1.07 (0.92, 1.24) 0.86 (0.68, 1.09) 0.70 (0.49, 1.02) 0.72 (0.34, 1.49)
 Obese 0.98 (0.94, 1.02) 0.98 (0.84, 1.12) 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 1.02 (0.72, 1.45) 0.86 (0.62, 1.18) 0.99 (0.48, 2.05)
Cancer < 0.001 < 0.001 0.046 0.568 0.751 0.423
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.33 (1.27, 1.39) 1.49 (1.24, 1.80) 1.28 (1.00, 1.64) 1.25 (0.58, 2.67) 0.93 (0.59, 1.47) 1.49 (0.56, 3.98)
Diabetes < 0.001 < 0.001 0.004 0.444 0.131 0.663
 No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.42 (1.34, 1.50) 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) 1.30 (1.09, 1.56) 1.17 (0.78, 1.76) 1.33 (0.92, 1.93) 0.86 (0.44, 1.68)
  1. Notes: Boldface indicates statistical significance p < 0.05
  2. a Includes data from the 2019 BRFSS annual survey. Analysis excludes US territories
  3. b New England division includes: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Middle Atlantic includes: New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. East North Central division includes: Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. West North Central division includes: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. South Atlantic division includes: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. East South Central division includes: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. West South Central division includes: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. Mountain division includes: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Montana, Utah, Nevada, and Wyoming. Pacific division includes: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington