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Table 3 Spatial Location Hierarchical Modelling of Factors Associated with HIV Testing in the Year Prior to Enrollment

From: Hepatitis and tuberculosis testing are much less common than HIV testing among adults in Kisumu, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional assessment

Characteristic Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) p
Fixed Effects
 Education Level
  Less than Secondary School Reference  
  Secondary School or Higher 1.10 (1.02, 1.20) 0.02
 Self-Assessed HIV Risk
  No Risk 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.72
  Some Risk Reference  
  High Risk 0.92 (0.84, 1.00) 0.06
Random Effects
 Area
  (1) West Seme 0.99 (0.91, 1.07) 0.78
  (2) Central Seme 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.92
  (3) East Seme 1.00 (0.95, 1.04) 0.87
  (4) Southwest, Central, and North Kisumu 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.91
  (5) West and Northwest Kisumu 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.99
  (6) Railways, Migosi, Shaurimoyo Kaloleni, Kondele 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.91
  (7) Market Milimani, Nayalenda B 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) 0.78
  (8) Kajulu 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 0.81
  (9) Kolwa East 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.95
  (10) Manyatta B 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 0.96
  (11) Nyalenda A 1.01 (0.94, 1.07) 0.83
  (12) Kolwa Central 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.98
Overall Covariance Effect 1.00 (0.997, 1.004) 0.40
  1. In order to assess whether prior testing was associated with aspects of differential access due to spatial location, we constructed a 2-tier hierarchical model with level 1 as the individual respondent and level 2 as the residential ward. Residential wards were aggregated into 12 groups based on expert knowledge from in-country staff as described in Fig. 1. Due to the number of geographic categories necessary to consider, the model was limited in the number of covariates that could be included as independent variables. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) prevalence ratios are shown in bold