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Table 4 Bivariate associations between experiencing a hate crime and demographic characteristics, trans women surveyed in the San Francisco Bay Area, 2016–2018 (N = 629)

From: Experiences and factors associated with transphobic hate crimes among transgender women in the San Francisco Bay Area: comparisons across race

Variable Experienced transphobic hate crime n (%) OR (95% CI) p-value
No (n = 341) Yes (n = 288)
Age
 18–24 42 (12.3) 28 (9.7) REF  
 25–34 97 (28.5) 71 (24.7) 1.10 (0.62, 1.94) 0.747
 35–44 73 (21.4) 71 (24.7) 1.46 (0.82, 2.60) 0.201
 45–54 67 (19.7) 72 (25.0) 1.61 (0.90, 2.89) 0.108
 55+ 62 (18.2) 46 (16.0) 1.11 (0.60, 2.05) 0.732
Gender
 Female 161 (50.0) 121 (43.8) REF  
 Transgender female/Trans woman 145 (45.0) 145 (52.6) 1.33 (0.96, 1.85) 0.089
 Genderqueer/Genderfluid 15 (4.7) 8 (2.9) 0.71 (0.29, 1.73) 0.450
 Androgynous/Ambigender 1 (0.3) 2 (0.7) 2.66 (0.24, 29.69) 0.426
Sexual identity
 Gay/Homosexual 55 (22.6) 33 (15.6) REF  
 Bisexual 50 (20.6) 46 (21.8) 1.53 (0.85, 2.76) 0.155
 Heterosexual 138 (56.8) 132 (62.6) 1.59 (0.97, 2.61) 0.064
Education
 Middle school or less 11 (3.2) 22 (7.6) REF  
 Some or completed secondary 142 (41.6) 127 (44.1) 0.45 (0.21, 0.95) 0.039
 Some or completed college/Technical 166 (48.7) 126 (43.8) 0.38 (0.17, 0.81) 0.012
 Postgraduate 22 (6.5) 13 (4.5) 0.30 (0.11, 0.80) 0.017
Ever been undocumented
 No 305 (89.7) 244 (84.7) REF  
 Yes 35 (10.3) 44 (15.3) 1.57 (0.97, 2.53) 0.06
Experienced homelessness as a child
 No 263 (77.1) 175 (60.8) REF  
 Yes 78 (22.9) 113 (39.2) 2.18 (1.54, 3.08) < 0.001
Experienced homelessness as an adult
 No 126 (36.9) 47 (16.3) REF  
 Yes 215 (63.1) 241 (83.7) 3.01 (2.05, 4.40) < 0.001
Current Housing
 Own 14 (4.1) 3 (1.1) REF  
 Renting 158 (46.3) 114 (39.6) 3.37 (0.95, 11.99) 0.061
 Single room occupancy (SRO) 59 (17.3) 60 (20.8) 4.74 (1.29, 17.37) 0.019
 Homeless/temporary/unstable housing 81 (23.8) 81 (28.1) 4.67 (1.29, 16.86) 0.019
 Other 29 (8.5) 30 (10.4) 4.83 (1.25, 18.57) 0.022
Ever did sex work
 No 163 (47.9) 59 (20.6) REF  
 Yes 177 (52.1) 228 (79.4) 3.56 (2.49, 5.08) < 0.001
Ever experienced discrimination by police/in court
 Based on gender identity/presentation 66 (59.5) 121 (57.4) REF  
 Based on race, ethnicity, or color 5 (4.5) 5 (2.4) 0.55 (0.15, 0.35) 0.352
 Based on both gender and race/ethnicity 40 (36.0) 85 (40.3) 1.16 (0.72, 1.87) 0.547
Feel gender identity passes
 Not at all 36 (10.6) 23 (8.1) REF  
 A little bit 48 (14.2) 49 (17.3) 1.60 (0.83, 3.08) 0.162
 Somewhat 114 (33.6) 111 (39.1) 1.52 (0.85, 2.74) 0.158
 A lot 141 (41.6) 101 (35.6) 1.12 (0.63, 2.01) 0.700
Feel gender identity questioned
 Not at all 50 (14.9) 20 (7.1) REF  
 A little bit 126 (37.5) 84 (29.7) 1.67 (0.93, 3.00) 0.088
 Somewhat 81 (24.1) 85 (30.0) 2.62 (1.44, 4.79) 0.002
 A lot 79 (23.5) 94 (33.2) 2.97 (1.63, 5.41) < 0.001
Ever been incarcerated
 No 150 (44.1) 80 (27.8) REF  
 Yes 190 (55.9) 208 (72.2) 2.05 (1.47, 2.87) < 0.001