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Table 2 Distance Learning organisation by School

From: Distance learning in Italian primary and middle school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

  Primary school Middle school Total OR CI 95% p-value
Instruments (flag)
 Computer 130 (11.5) 70 (15.6) 200 (12.6) 0.70 (0.51–0.96) 0.0275
 PC 727 (64.2) 320 (71.1) 1.047 (66.1) 0.73 (0.57–0.92) 0.0084
 Smartphone/Tablet 666 (58.8) 277 (61.6) 943 (59.6) 0.89 (0.71–1.11) 0.3105
 Books 800 (70.6) 280 (62.2) 1.080 (68.2) 1.46 (1.16–1.83) 0.0012
Missing 15 3 18    
Difficulties with technologies
 Not used 17 (1.5) 7 (1.6) 24 (1.5) 0.90 (0.37–2.18) 0.0579
 Some 184 (16.3) 95 (21.4) 279 (17.7) 0.71 (0.54–0.94)  
 None 927 (82.2) 342 (77.0) 1.269 (80.7) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 20 9 29    
Frequency of PC use
 Low 112 (10.2) 17 (3.8) 129 (8.3) 3.48 (2.06–5.90) < 0.0001
 Moderate 355 (32.3) 95 (21.3) 450 (29.1) 1.97 (1.52–2.57)  
 Often 632 (57.5) 334 (74.9) 966 (62.5) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 12 3 15    
Type of tools (flag)
 Edmodo, Google Suits for Education 678 (59.8) 265 (58.8) 943 (59.5) 1.04 (0.84–1.30) 0.7062
 WhatsApp/FaceTime 458 (40.4) 219 (48.6) 677 (42.7) 0.72 (0.58–0.89) 0.0030
 Zoom, Skype 273 (24.1) 90 (20.0) 363 (22.9) 1.27 (0.97–1.66) 0.0783
 Electronic register 628 (55.4) 331 (73.4) 959 (60.5) 0.45 (0.35–0.57) < 0.0001
 YouTube 427 (37.7) 133 (29.5) 560 (35.3) 1.44 (1.14–1.83) 0.0022
 None 496 (43.7) 260 (57.6) 756 (47.7) 0.57 (0.46–0.71) < 0.0001
Missing       
Frequency of web tools use
 Low 199 (28.6) 38 (10.2) 237 (22.1) 3.58 (2.45–5.23) < 0.0001
 Moderate 287 (41.2) 97 (26.0) 384 (35.9) 2.02 (1.53–2.67)  
 Often 401 (57.5) 274 (73.5) 675 (63.1) 1.00 (Ref.)  
Missing 9 2 11    
Teaching modalities (flag)
 Homework 1.044 (91.0) 416 (92.4) 1.460 (91.4) 0.83 (0.55–1.24) 0.3605
 Film/ Documentaries 718 (62.6) 287 (63.8) 1.005 (62.9) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.6606
 School Material 686 (59.8) 263 (58.4) 949 (59.4) 1.06 (0.85–1.32) 0.6176
 Video-lessons 936 (81.6) 414 (92.0) 1.350 (84.5) 0.39 (0.27–0.56) < 0.0001
 Books 663 (57.8) 327 (72.7) 990 (62.0) 0.52 (0.41–0.65) < 0.0001
Missing 1 3 4    
Distance learning organisation
 Yes 766 (71.3) 335 (77.9) 1.101 (73.2) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.0092
 No 308 (28.7) 95 (22.1) 403 (26.8) 1.42 (1.09–1.85)  
Missing 74 23 97    
Stable routine
 Yes 271 (24.7) 149 (34.2) 420 (27.4) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.0002
 No 826 (75.3) 287 (65.8) 1.113 (72.6) 1.50 (1.24–2.01)  
Missing 51 17 68    
Child effort
 Yes 899 (81.7) 352 (80.0) 1.251 (81.2) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.4329
 No 201 (18.3) 88 (20.0) 289 (18.8) 0.89 (0.68–1.18)  
Missing 48 13 61    
Teachers reachability
 Yes 786 (72.6) 256 (59.4) 1.042 (68.9) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 296 (27.4) 175 (40.6) 471 (31.1) 0.55 (0.44–0.70)  
Missing 66 22 88    
Assessment
 Yes 993 (88.5) 432 (95.6) 1.425 (90.5) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 129 (11.5) 20 (4.4) 149 (9.5) 2.81 (1.73–4.55)  
Missing 26 1 27    
Homework revision
 Teachers 846 (75.1) 321 (72.3) 1.167 (74.3) 1.00 (Ref.) 0.0449
 Self-revision 65 (5.8) 17 (3.8) 82 (5.2) 1.45 (0.84–2.51)  
 Both 215 (19.1) 106 (23.9) 321 (20.4) 0.77 (0.59–1.00)  
Missing 22 9 31    
Grades attribution
 Yes 517 (46.9) 343 (80.0) 860 (56.2) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 585 (53.1) 86 (20.0) 671 (43.8) 4.51 (3.46–5.88)  
Missing 46 24 70    
Planned assessment
 Yes 558 (59.3) 327 (77.7) 885 (65.0) 1.00 (Ref.) < 0.0001
 No 383 (40.7) 94 (22.3) 477 (35.0) 2.39 (1.83–3.11)  
Missing 52 11 63    
Grades variability
 Higher 62 (12.5) 53 (16.2) 115 (14.0) 0.68 (0.46–1.02) 0.0037
 Same 398 (80.4) 232 (70.9) 630 (76.6) 1.00 (Ref.)  
 Lower 35 (7.1) 42 (12.8) 77 (9.4) 0.49 (0.30–0.78)  
Missing 22 16 38