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Table 2 Logistic regression analysis of factors associated with informal caregiving

From: Factors associated with informal caregiving and its effects on health, work, and social activities of adult informal caregivers in Malaysia: findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2019

Factor Crude OR
(95% CI)
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
Sex
 Male Ref Ref
 Female 1.65 (1.34–2.04) 1.52 (1.21–1.92)***
Age group (years)
 18–35 Ref Ref
 36–59 1.67 (1.25–2.23) 1.61 (1.15–2.25)**
 60 and above 1.76 (1.23–2.52) 1.48 (0.97–2.24)
Marital status
 Not married Ref Ref
 Married 1.25 (0.94–1.65) 1.05 (0.76–1.45)
Ethnicity
 Malay Ref Ref
 Non-Malay 0.80 (0.61–1.05) 0.83 (0.63–1.09)
Education levela
 No formal education 1.28 (0.71–2.30)  
 Primary 1.11 (0.76–1.63)  
 Secondary 1.26 (0.94–1.69)  
 Tertiary Ref
Employment status
 No 1.34 (1.11–1.76) 1.11 (0.84–1.48)
 Yes Ref Ref
Household income group
 Low 1.36 (0.98–1.88) 1.23 (0.86–1.74)
 Middle 1.10 (0.77–1.59) 1.13 (0.78–1.63)
 High Ref Ref
Residencya
 Urban 0.89 (0.70–1.13)  
 Rural Ref
Self-reported illness
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.91 (1.49–2.47) 1.79 (1.38–2.33)***
Perceived health status
 Very poor to poor Ref Ref
 Fair to excellent 1.41 (1.09–1.83) 1.00 (0.72–1.39)
Presence of DM, HPT or HPC
 No Ref Ref
 Yes 1.48 (1.14–1.90) 1.07 (0.80–1.42)
  1. CI Confidence Interval, OR, Odds Ratio, Ref Reference category, DM Diabetes Mellitus, HPT Hypertension, HPC Hypercholesterolemia; a p-value > 0.25 for univariate analysis; * p-value < 0.05; ** p-value < 0.01; *** p-value < 0.001; Area under ROC curve for model provision of informal care = 0.6364