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Table 6 Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for associations of ground coffee consumption (including espresso) with incident chronic liver disease, incident chronic liver disease or steatosis, death from CLD and incident hepatocellular carcinoma

From: All coffee types decrease the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in chronic liver disease: a UK Biobank study

  HR1 HR2 HR3 HR4
CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.59 (0.44–0.78) 0.58 (0.43–0.78) 0.60 (0.44–0.82) 0.64 (0.46–0.88)
 1 cup/d 0.69 (0.58–0.82) 0.67 (0.56–0.79) 0.69 (0.58–0.83) 0.74 (0.61–0.90)
 2 cups/d 0.66 (0.55–0.79) 0.61 (0.51–0.74) 0.64 (0.53–0.77) 0.65 (0.53–0.79)
 3 cups/d 0.59 (0.46–0.75) 0.55 (0.42–0.70) 0.55 (0.43–0.72) 0.55 (0.42–0.73)
 4 cups/d 0.59 (0.43–0.83) 0.55 (0.39–0.76) 0.53 (0.37–0.74) 0.52 (0.36–0.75)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.69 (0.50–0.95) 0.65 (0.47–0.90) 0.56 (0.40–0.78) 0.61 (0.43–0.87)
 Any amount 0.65 (0.58–0.72) 0.61 (0.55–0.68) 0.62 (0.55–0.70) 0.64 (0.57–0.73)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.63 (0.54–0.74) 0.60 (0.51–0.70) 0.62 (0.52–0.74) 0.66 (0.55–0.79)
CLD or steatosis
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.54 (0.42–0.69) 0.53 (0.42–0.68) 0.58 (0.45–0.76) 0.61 (0.46–0.80)
 1 cup/d 0.65 (0.57–0.75) 0.63 (0.55–0.73) 0.73 (0.63–0.85) 0.74 (0.63–0.87)
 2 cups/d 0.62 (0.54–0.72) 0.59 (0.51–0.68) 0.66 (0.56–0.77) 0.65 (0.55–0.77)
 3 cups/d 0.53 (0.42–0.65) 0.49 (0.40–0.61) 0.56 (0.45–0.70) 0.54 (0.43–0.68)
 4 cups/d 0.58 (0.44–0.77) 0.55 (0.42–0.72) 0.55 (0.42–0.73) 0.54 (0.40–0.73)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 0.78 (0.61–0.99) 0.74 (0.58–0.95) 0.69 (0.54–0.89) 0.66 (0.50–0.87)
 Any amount 0.62 (0.56–0.67) 0.59 (0.54–0.64) 0.65 (0.59–0.72) 0.64 (0.58–0.72)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.59 (0.52–0.67) 0.57 (0.50–0.65) 0.63 (0.55–0.73) 0.62 (0.53–0.72)
HCC
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.51 (0.12–2.12) 0.51 (0.12–2.09) 0.55 (0.13–2.29) 0.67 (0.16–2.81)
 1 cup/d 0.68 (0.31–1.51) 0.64 (0.29–1.42) 0.68 (0.30–1.55) 0.84 (0.37–1.93)
 2 cups/d 0.40 (0.14–1.12) 0.35 (0.13–0.99) 0.28 (0.08–0.90) 0.35 (0.11–1.15)
 3 cups/d 0.38 (0.09–1.55) 0.33 (0.08–1.35) 0.33 (0.08–1.36) 0.41 (0.10–1.72)
 4 cups/d 0.70 (0.17–2.87) 0.59 (0.14–2.45) 0.54 (0.13–2.27) 0.65 (0.15–2.71)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 1.12 (0.35–3.60) 0.99 (0.31–3.20) 0.84 (0.26–2.73) 1.06 (0.32–3.48)
 Any amount 0.57 (0.34–0.97) 0.52 (0.30–0.88) 0.50 (0.28–0.88) 0.62 (0.35–1.11)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.49 (0.25–0.99) 0.44 (0.22–0.88) 0.51 (0.24–1.08) 0.60 (0.27–1.30)
Death from CLD
 No coffee 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.) 1 (ref.)
 0.5 cups/d 0.23 (0.06–0.95) 0.23 (0.06–0.92) 0.21 (0.05–0.86) 0.23 (0.06–0.96)
 1 cup/d 0.26 (0.12–0.60) 0.25 (0.11–0.58) 0.22 (0.10–0.51) 0.27 (0.12–0.63)
 2 cups/d 0.46 (0.24–0.88) 0.41 (0.22–0.80) 0.34 (0.17–0.65) 0.38 (0.19–0.75)
 3 cups/d 0.26 (0.08–0.81) 0.23 (0.07–0.71) 0.17 (0.05–0.55) 0.22 (0.07–0.69)
 4 cups/d 0.63 (0.23–1.71) 0.54 (0.20–1.47) 0.40 (0.15–1.09) 0.50 (0.18–1.36)
  ≥ 5 cups/d 1.35 (0.66–2.78) 1.15 (0.56–2.37) 0.70 (0.32–1.51) 0.85 (0.39–1.85)
 Any amount 0.43 (0.29–0.63) 0.39 (0.26–0.58) 0.31 (0.21–0.47) 0.37 (0.24–0.56)
 Any amount (excluding cases within first 5 years) 0.47 (0.29–0.76) 0.43 (0.26–0.70) 0.36 (0.22–0.61) 0.42 (0.25–0.71)
  1. Abbreviations: CLD (chronic liver disease), HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). 1unadjusted, 2adjusted for age and sex, 3as for 2 and additionally adjusted for deprivation (Townsend score), smoking status (never, current or previous), diabetes (yes or no), ethnicity (white or other ethnicity), alcohol frequency (less than weekly, once or twice a week, three or four times a week, and daily or almost daily) and BMI, 4as for 3 but adjusted for weekly alcohol units instead of alcohol frequency