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Table 2 Sleep duration, food habits, and physical activity related information by weight status of the study participants (n = 627)

From: The association of sleep problem, dietary habits and physical activity with weight status of adolescents in Nepal

Study variables Total
n (%)
Underweight
n (%)
Normal
n (%)
Overweight/obese
n (%)
P value1
Sleep characteristics
Sleep problem based on CASC Score
  No sleep problem 474 (75.6) 49 (85.9) 360 (85.5) 65 (43.6) < 0.001*
  Sleep problem 153 (24.4) 8 (14) 61 (14.4) 84 (56.3)
No sleep problem, mean ± SD 9.7 ± 3.8 10.1 ± 2.1 9.6 ± 3.7 10.3 ± 5.1 0.281
Sleep problem, mean ± SD 24.7 ± 4.5 21.0 ± 2.1 23.2 ± 3.5 26.2 ± 4.7 < 0.001*
CASC score, mean ± SD
  Total score 13.4 ± 7.6 11.6 ± 4.7 11.5 ± 6.1 19.3 ± 9.2 < 0.001*
  Bed time problem 4.5 ± 2.9 3.9 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 2.4 6.6 ± 3.5 < 0.001*
  Breathing and unstable sleep 3.6 ± 3.4 4.1 ± 3.3 2.6 ± 2.8 6.1 ± 3.1 < 0.001*
  Parasomnia and sleep movement 2.2 ± 2.1 1.3 ± 1.5 2 ± 1.9 3.2 ± 2.3 < 0.001*
  Day time problem 2.9 ± 1.9 2.5 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.9 3.2 ± 2.1 0.028*
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  No 570 (90.9) 53 (92.9) 398 (94.5) 119 (79.8) < 0.001*
  Yes 57 (9.1) 4 (7.1) 23 (5.4) 30 (20.1)
Sleep duration weekdays (hours), mean ± SD 8.9 ± 1.1 8.7 ± 1.1) 9.1 ± 1 8.4 ± 1.2 < 0.001*
Sleep duration weekends (hours), mean ± SD 8 ± 1.1 8.3 ± 1.3 8.1 ± 1.1 7.6 ± 0.9 < 0.001*
Adolescents food habit in past 30 days
Went hungry
  Never 383 (61.1) 28 (49.1) 264 (62.7) 91 (61.1) 0.142
  Rarely/sometimes 244 (38.9) 29 (50.8) 157 (37.2) 58 (38.9)
Consumed fruits
  Never 320 (51) 22 (38.6) 235 (55.8) 63 (42.2) 0.003*
  ≥ 1 times/day 307 (48.9) 35 (61.4) 186 (44.1) 86 (57.7)
Consumed vegetables
  ≤ 1 time/day 161 (25.6) 16 (28.1) 105 (24.9) 40 (26.8) 0.820
  ≥ 2 times/day 466 (74.3) 41 (71.9) 316 (75.1) 109 (73.1)
Consumed soft drinks
  < 1 time/day 294 (46.8) 43 (75.4) 226 (53.6) 25 (16.7) < 0.001*
  ≥ 1 time/day 333 (53.1) 14 (24.5) 195 (46.3) 124 (83.2)
Consumed high fat food
  ≤ 1 time/day 409 (65.2) 38 (66.6) 297 (70.5) 74 (49.6) < 0.001*
  ≥ 2 times/day 218 (34.7) 19 (33.3) 124 (29.4) 75 (50.3)
Consumed fast food
  Daily 65 (10.3) 15 (26.3) 38 (9) 12 (8.1) < 0.001*
  2–3 days/week 335 (53.4) 26 (45.6) 238 (56.5) 71 (47.6)
  ≥ 4 days/week 227 (36.2) 16 (28.1) 145 (34.4) 66 (44.3)
Consumed junk food
  No 185 (29.5) 13 (22.8) 156 (37.1) 16 (10.7) < 0.001*
  Yes 133 (89.2) 44 (77.1) 265 (62.9) 133 (89.2)
Frequency of consumed junk food
  None 185 (29.5) 13 (22.8) 156 (37.1) 16 (10.7) < 0.001*
  1–3 times/week 289 (46.1) 35 (61.4) 195 (46.3) 59 (39.6)
  ≥ 4 times/week 153 (24.4) 9 (15.7) 70 (16.6) 74 (49.6)
Consumed food groups (10 food groups)
  < 5 food groups 277 (44.1) 39 (68.4) 168 (39.9) 70 (46.9) < 0.001*
  ≥ 5 food groups 350 (55.8) 18 (31.5) 253 (60.1) 79 (53)
Adolescents physical activity
Students physical activity
  Not active 396 (63.1) 48 (84.2) 249 (59.1) 99 (66.4) 0.001*
  Active 50 (33.5) 9 (15.7) 172 (40.8) 50 (33.5)
Walking or ride bicycle
  None 325 (51.8) 36 (63.1) 227 (53.9) 62 (41.6) 0.014*
  1–3 days 111 (17.7) 11 (19.3) 66 (15.6) 34 (22.8)
  ≥ 4 days 191 (30.4) 10 (17.5) 128 (30.4) 53 (35.5)
Physical education
  None 353 (56.3) 42 (73.6) 209 (49.6) 102 (68.4) < 0.001*
  1–3 days 113 (18) 5 (8.7) 79 (18.7) 29 (19.4)
  ≥ 4 days 161 (25.6) 10 (17.5) 133 (31.5) 18 (12.1)
Sedentary behavior
  < 1 h/day 80 (12.7) 12 (21.1) 51 (12.1) 17 (11.4) < 0.001*
  1–2 h/day 208 (33.1) 18 (31.5) 151 (35.8) 39 (26.1)
  3–4 h/day 267 (42.5) 23 (40.3) 192 (45.6) 52 (34.9)
  5–6 h/day 72 (11.4) 4 (7) 27 (6.4) 41 (27.5)
  1. 1Denotes chi-square test and fisher exact test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables
  2. *Denotes statistically significant variables at p < 0.05