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Table 1 Characteristics of study patients by presence/absence of pneumonia

From: An Italian individual-level data study investigating on the association between air pollution exposure and Covid-19 severity in primary-care setting

  Total
(N = 6483)
COVID-19 without pneumonia
(N = 5404)
COVID-19 with pneumonia
(N = 1079)
 
Patients characteristics p-value
Gender        <.0001
 Male: N (%) 3095 (47.74%) 2479 (45.87%) 616 (57.09%)  
Age classes        <.0001
 14 ≤ Age < 45 years: N (%) 1781 (27.47%) 1672 (30.94%) 109 (10.10%)  
 45 ≤ Age < 55 years: N (%) 1387 (21.39%) 1200 (22.21%) 187 (17.33%)  
 55 ≤ Age < 65 years: N (%) 1316 (20.30%) 1076 (19.91%) 240 (22.24%)  
 65 ≤ Age < 75 years: N (%) 963 (14.85%) 743 (13.75%) 220 (20.39%)  
 Age ≥ 75 years 1036 (15.98%) 713 (13.19%) 323 (29.97%)  
Smoking statusa        <.0001
 Never smoked: N (%) 3635 (86.24%) 2987 (85.22) 648 (91.27%)  
 Ever smoked: N (%) 580 (13.76%) 518 (14.78%) 62 (8.73%)  
Comorbidities
 Hypertension: N (%) 1821 (28.09%) 1405 (26.00%) 416 (38.55%) <.0001
 Diabetes: N (%) 537 (8.28%) 388 (7.18%) 149 (13.81%) <.0001
 Asthma: N (%) 319 (4.92%) 252 (4.66%) 67 (6.21%) 0.0320
 Obesityb: N (%) 765 (11.80%) 594 (10.99%) 171 (15.85%) <.0001
 COPD: N (%) 420 (6.48%) 323 (5.98%) 97 (8.99%) 0.0002
 CAD: N (%) 297 (4.58%) 220 (4.07%) 77 (7.14%) <.0001
 CVD: N (%) 309 (4.77%) 236 (4.37%) 73 (6.77%) 0.0007
Comorbidities number
 0: N (%) 3664 (56.52%) 3200 (59.22%) 465 (43.00%) <.0001
 1: N (%) 1652 (25.48%) 1340 (24.80%) 312 (28.92%)  
 2: N (%) 791 (12.20%) 585 (10.83%) 206 (19.09%)  
 3+: N (%) 376 (5.80%) 279 (5.16%) 97 (8.99%)  
PM10c
 Mean (SD) 24.06 (7.31) 23.59 (7.22) 26.40 (7.32) <.0001
 Median (Q1; Q3) 23.40 (17.78; 30.38) 22.94 (17.52; 29.74) 28.56 (20.30; 32.45)  
  1. SD standard deviation; Q1 first quartile; Q3 third quartile
  2. a Calculated on 4215 subjects with smoking habits available information
  3. b Body Mass Index > 30 kg/m2 or ICD-9 in 278.0x, 278.00, 278.01
  4. c PM10 exposure during the month preceding the Index Date measured as a continuous variable