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Table 4 Associations of economic, emotional, physical, and sexual violence against women with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, for 4906 ever-married women in informal settlements in Mumbai

From: Economic abuse and its associations with symptoms of common mental disorders among women in a cross-sectional survey in informal settlements in Mumbai, India

  No (%) Yes (%) OR (95% CI) aOR1 (95% CI) aOR2 (95% CI)
Moderate or severe depression on PHQ-9
Economic abuse
 No 3441 (95) 165 (5) 1   1   1  
 Yes 1022 (79) 278 (21) 5.7 (4.5, 7.1) 4.4 (3.5, 5.4) 2.6 (2.0, 3.4)
Emotional violence in last 12 m
 No 3759 (95) 220 (5) 1   1   1  
 Yes 704 (76) 223 (24) 5.4 (4.4, 6.7) 4.8 (3.9, 6.0) 2.5 (1.9, 3.3)
Physical violence in last 12 m
 No 3998 (93) 292 (7) 1   1   1  
 Yes 467 (76) 151 (24) 4.4 (3.5, 5.5) 4.0 (3.1, 5.1) 1.4 (1.0, 1.8)
Sexual violence in last 12 m
 No 4336 (92) 384 (8) 1   1   1  
 Yes 127 (68) 59 (32) 5.2 (3.8, 7.3) 4.5 (3.1, 6.5) 1.5 (1.0, 2.2)
Moderate or severe anxiety on GAD-7
Economic abuse
 No 3505 (97) 101 (3) 1   1   1  
 Yes 1102 (85) 198 (15) 6.2 (4.6, 8.5) 4.8 (3.4, 6.6) 2.7 (1.9, 3.8)
Emotional violence in last 12 m
 No 3843 (97) 136 (3) 1   1   1  
 Yes 764 (82) 163 (18) 6.0 (4.6, 7.9) 5.5 (4.1, 7.3) 2.7 (1.8, 4.0)
Physical violence in last 12 m
 No 4099 (96) 189 (4) 1   1   1  
 Yes 508 (82) 110 (18) 4.7 (3.5, 6.2) 4.4 (3.2, 6.1) 1.4 (1.0, 2.0)
Sexual violence in last 12 m
 No 4465 (95) 255 (5) 1   1   1  
 Yes 142 (76) 44 (24) 5.4 (3.7, 7.9) 4.9 (3.1, 7.8) 1.6 (1.0, 2.6)
Suicidal thoughts or action in last 12 months
Economic abuse
 No 3495 (97) 111 (3) 1   1   1  
 Yes 1097 (84) 203 16) 5.8 (4.5, 7.5) 4.9 (3.7, 6. 4) 2.2 (1.5, 3.1)
Emotional violence in last 12 m
 No 3851 (97) 128 (3) 1   1   1  
 Yes 741 (80) 186 (20) 7.5 (6.0, 9.5) 6.9 (5.3, 8.9) 2.8 (1.8, 4.2)
Physical violence in last 12 m
 No 4121 (96) 167 (4) 1   1   1  
 Yes 471 (76) 147 (24) 7.7 (5.9, 10.1) 6.7 (5.0, 9.1) 2.3 (1.5, 3.5)
Sexual violence in last 12 m
 No 4463 (95) 257 (5) 1   1   1  
 Yes 129 (69) 57 (31) 7.7 (5.4, 10.9) 6.2 (4.3, 9.1) 1.8 (1.2, 2.6)
  1. PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire 9-question screen, GAD-7 Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-question screen, OR crude odds ratio, aOR1 odds ratio adjusted with covariates for respondent age, education, religion, caste, socioeconomic quintile, respondent and husband employment, respondent and husband drug or alcohol use, aOR2 odds ratio adjusted as aOR1 plus covariates for emotional, physical, and sexual violence