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Table 2 Lifestyle habits (Diet, Physical activity, Stress, Sleep, Social connection, Use of risky substances) before and during lockdown

From: Lifestyle habits of adults during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Cyprus: evidence from a cross-sectional study

Lifestyle habits The Month before Lockdown Lockdown Change in scoreb
(% of participants)
P value c
Median (IQR) a Decrease Increase
Diet
 Mediterranean Diet Score (range: 0–14) 6 (2) 6 (3) 22.7 31.9 < 0.01
Physical Activity
 MET 792 (1880) 813 (1815) 37.0 43.8 0.16
 Time spent sitting (mins) 120 (340) 180 (466) 14.5 67.1 < 0.01
Physical Activity Score (%)
 Low 49.4% 48.9% 21.2 21.5 0.95
 Moderate 25.2% 26.3%
 High 25.4% 24.8%
Stress
 PSS-14 overall score (0–56) 22 (9) 25 (12) 21.7 57.9 < 0.01
Sleep
 Global PSQI score (range: 0–21) 4 (4) 5 (4) 25.3 49.1 < 0.01
 Sleep latency (0–3) 1 (1) 1 (2) 6.1 40.6 < 0.01
 Daytime dysfunction (0–3) 1 (1) 1 (1) 12.3 28.5 <  0.01
 Sleep efficiency (0–3) 0 (1) 0 (0) 15.6 14.1 < 0.01
 Sleep medication (0–3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.2 4.3 < 0.01
 Sleep quality (0–3) 1 (1) 1 (2) 10.1 26.8 < 0.01
Social Support
 Overall Support Index (0–100) 71.1 (31.58) 68.4 (36.8) 43.6 18.0 < 0.01
 Emotional/informational support 71.9 (37.5) 65.6 (40.6) 28.9 12.5 < 0.01
 Tangible support 75.0 (43.8) 75 (43.75) 20.7 13.4 < 0.01
 Affectionate Support 75.0 (50) 75 (50) 24.6 9.7 < 0.01
 Positive Social Interaction 75.0 (50) 66.7 (58.3) 34.0 11.0 < 0.01
Use of Substances
 Cigarettes, cigars and e-cigarettes (total n) 10 (14) 10 (8) 28.1 43.8 0.03
 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) 2 (2) 1 (2) 29.4 11.5 < 0.01
 Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) score risk (%)
  No or low risk 77.2% 79.8% 7.04.6 4.67.0 0.06
  High risk 22.7% 20.2%
Frequency of alcohol consumption (%)
 Never 22.3% 36.2% 26.0 11.5 < 0.01
 Monthly or less 29.4% 27.2%
 2–4 times a month 33.2% 19.9%
 2–3 times a week 10.3% 8.9%
 4 or more times a week 4.8% 7.8%
Number of alcoholic drinks on a typical day (%)
 0 53.1% 57.5% 13.1 9.1 0.08
 1 or 2 39.3% 36%
 3 or 4 6.0% 4.8%
 5 or 6 1.2% 1.1%
 7,8 or 9 0.3% 0.3%
 10 or more 0.1% 0.3%
Six or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion (%)
 Never 78.6% 88.3% 11.6 3.1 < 0.01
 Less than Monthly 12.2% 6.3%
 Monthly 6.6% 2.9%
 Weekly 2.5% 1.8%
 Daily or Almost Daily 0.1% 0.7%
  1. aQuestionnaire Scores for reporting different lifestyle pillar habits are presented as median values (IQR) with the exception of alcohol consumption where the percentage of participants per consumption frequency is presented. The MEDAS score ranges from 0 to 14, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. The IPAQ score, categorizes participants into levels of Low, Moderate and High physical activity. The PSQI score, ranging from 0 to 21, assesses sleep quality with higher scores (> 5) representing poor sleep quality. The MOS-SSS ranges from 0 to 100 with higher scores indicating higher levels of social support. The PSS-14 score ranges from 1 to 14, and higher scores are associated with increased perceived stress. The AUDIT-C score ranges from 0 to 12; a score of 4 or more in men and a score of 3 or more in women is indicates elevated risk for hazardous drinking or active alcohol use disorder. Missing values for all responses included in score calculations were in the range of < 5%
  2. bChange in score refers to the Month in Lockdown compared to February 2020 (i.e. - the Month before Lockdown)
  3. cSignrank test was used for the comparison of median questionnaire scores between February 2020 (i.e. - the Month before Lockdown) and lockdown and Bowker symmetry Test for comparison of categorical variables