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Table 2 Coding framework

From: The effectiveness of graphic health warnings on tobacco products: a systematic review on perceived harm and quit intentions



A. Bibliographic Information


As stated in article


As stated in article

 Publication year

As stated in article

B. Study Characteristics

 Study design

1. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) or Controlled Clinical Trial (CCT)

2. Quasi Experiment (two or more groups pre and post)

3. Cohort (one group pre and post)

4. Interrupted time series (or Longitudinal)


Country, Region

 Study aim(s)

As stated in article


cigarette, e-cigar, shisha, beedis, roll your own, etc.

 GHWs disclosure formats - Graphics


i. Both the front and back

ii. On principal display areas (top, bottom)

iii. Package inserts

iv. Others


v. 51% or more

vi. Between 31% ~ 50%

vii. Less than 30%


viii. Black and white

ix. Others (specify)

Image concept

x. Positive outcome focused

xi. Negative outcome focused

Others – Congruency – whether the image is congruent with the text warnings

 GHWs disclosure formats - Texts


xii. All sides of a package

xiii. Both the front and back

xiv. On principal display areas (top, bottom)

xv. Package inserts

xvi. Others


xvii. Legible font size

xviii. Not legible font size


xix. Black and white

xx. Others (specify)


Message content

xxi. Positive outcome focused

xxii. Negative outcome focused

Source attribution (specify)

Others (specify)

 Intervention sample

Sample description (e.g. people aged 18–25, smokers)

C. Outcome Evaluation

 Outcome measure - Benefits of quitting/Quit intentions

Pre-post changes across different groups

 Outcome measure - Perceived risk of smoking

Pre-post changes across different groups