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Table 1 Sex- and age- group specific DALY rates, SDI, and behavioural and metabolic risk predictor data

From: Projections of disability-adjusted life years for major diseases due to a change in vegetable intake in 2017–2040 in Japan

Year Sex GBD 2017 data NHNS data
All ages DALY rates per
100,000 population [16]
SDI (%) Number of NHNS participant Mean age (SD) Obesity (%) Current smoker (%) Current alcohol drinker (%)
Cardiovascular diseases Cancer Diabetes and kidney diseases
1990 Male 4649.6 5130.2 950.8 80.3 6182 47.4 (16.1) 22.3 53.1 52.1
Female 3674.8 3280.9 828.1 80.3 7025 48.7 (16.8) 21.8 9.7 6.1
Total population 4154.1 4190.1 888.4 80.3 13,207 48.1 (16.5) 22.0 28.5 26.0
1995 Male 4626.0 5832.0 1014.7 82.3 4976 47.8 (16.5) 23.9 52.7 54.4
Female 3573.7 3578.8 839.4 82.3 5766 49.0 (17.3) 20.9 10.7 7.4
Total population 4090.4 4685.2 925.5 82.3 10,742 48.4 (17.0) 22.2 28.2 27.0
2000 Male 4523.5 6185.2 1058.0 83.4 4513 50.1 (17.0) 26.8 47.4 50.8
Female 3344.3 3745.2 844.3 83.4 5149 51.7 (17.5) 21.3 11.5 9.0
Total population 3922.2 4940.9 949.0 83.4 9662 50.8 (17.2) 23.8 27.0 27.0
2005 Male 4646.2 6454.1 1097.6 84.4 3591 52.5 (17.5) 28.6 39.3 36.7
Female 3313.6 3866.9 841.7 84.4 4155 54.5 (17.8) 22.0 11.4 7.4
Total population 3964.9 5131.4 966.8 84.4 7746 53.6 (17.7) 24.9 24.3 20.9
2010 Male 4664.1 6549.9 1228.5 85.3 3740 53.9 (17.5) 30.4 32.2 35.4
Female 3300.7 3954.5 934.3 85.3 4239 55.6 (17.8) 21.1 8.4 7.0
Total population 3965.6 5220.2 1077.8 85.3 7746 54.8 (17.7) 25.3 19.5 20.3
2016 Male 4590.3 6449.7 1235.0 86.3 12,132 56.6 (17.6) 31.7 30.5 34.0
Female 3400.8 3957.2 1003.6 86.3 14,010 58.1 (18.0) 21.3 7.6 7.5
Total population 3980.4 5163.1 1116.4 86.3 26,142 57.4 (17.8) 25.9 18.2 19.8
  1. GBD Global Burden of Disease study, NHNS National Health and Nutrition Survey of Japan, DALYs Disability-adjusted life years, SDI Socio-demographic index, SD Standard deviation. Note that we used data for each year, but the table lists only selected years