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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants by demographic and socio-economic status, clinical history and COVID-19 status

From: Health, psychosocial, and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with chronic conditions in India: a mixed methods study

  Overall (N = 1734) Delhi (N = 430) Chennai (N = 494) Sonipat (N = 410) Vizag (N = 400) p-value*
Rural (N = 209) Urban (N = 201) Rural (N = 192) Urban (N = 208)
Age, years (mean, SD) 57.8 (11.3) 57.8 (11.0) 57.5 (11.6) 56.6 (11.4) 58.5 (10.8) 57.1 (10.2) 59.8 (11.9) 0.055
Male (%) 861 (49.7%) 219 (50.9%) 247 (50.0%) 86 (41.1%) 97 (48.3%) 92 (47.9%) 120 (57.7%) 0.033
Ownership of mobile phone 1366 (78.8%) 398 (92.6%) 382 (77.3%) 118 (56.5%) 123 (61.2%) 152 (79.2%) 193 (92.8%) < 0.001
Internet use/access 741 (42.7%) 341 (79.3%) 175 (35.4%) 16 (7.7%) 50 (24.9%) 34 (17.7%) 125 (60.1%) < 0.001
Education
 Below primary school 293 (16.9%) 43 (10.0%) 36 (7.3%) 57 (27.3%) 41 (20.4%) 93 (48.4%) 23 (11.1%) < 0.001
 Primary school 119 (6.9%) 9 (2.1%) 40 (8.1%) 10 (4.8%) 18 (9.0%) 28 (14.6%) 14 (6.7%)  
 Secondary school 978 (56.4%) 219 (50.9%) 372 (75.3%) 135 (64.6%) 97 (48.3%) 65 (33.9%) 90 (43.3%)  
 College degree and above 342 (19.7%) 157 (36.5%) 46 (9.3%) 7 (3.3%) 45 (22.4%) 6 (3.1%) 81 (38.9%)  
Household income
 < 10,000 INR 540 (31.1%) 51 (11.9%) 235 (47.6%) 96 (45.9%) 32 (15.9%) 115 (59.9%) 11 (5.3%) < 0.001
 10,000–30,000 INR 732 (42.2%) 169 (39.3%) 238 (48.2%) 77 (36.8%) 97 (48.3%) 64 (33.3%) 87 (41.8%)  
 > 30,000 INR 431 (24.9%) 208 (48.4%) 21 (4.3%) 29 (13.9%) 52 (25.9%) 12 (6.3%) 109 (52.4%)  
Occupation
 Not working 1004 (57.9%) 259 (60.2%) 273 (55.3%) 137 (65.6%) 129 (64.2%) 86 (44.8%) 120 (57.7%) < 0.001
 Semiskilled/Unskilled 262 (15.1%) 26 (6.0%) 127 (25.7%) 30 (14.4%) 23 (11.4%) 37 (19.3%) 19 (9.1%)  
 Trained/Skilled 456 (26.3%) 139 (32.3%) 91 (18.4%) 42 (20.1%) 49 (24.4%) 69 (35.9%) 66 (31.7%)  
 White collar 12 (0.7%) 6 (1.4%) 3 (0.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.4%)  
BMI (Kg/m2), mean (SD) 26.8 (5.1) 27.8 (5.1) 26.8 (4.9) 26.1 (5) 27.2 (5.4) 23.7 (4.4) 27 (4.3) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitusa 743 (42.8%) 180 (41.9%) 255 (51.6%) 35 (16.7%) 88 (43.8%) 49 (25.5%) 136 (65.4%) < 0.001
Hypertensionb 975 (56.2%) 202 (47.0%) 210 (42.5%) 154 (73.7%) 104 (51.7%) 152 (79.2%) 153 (73.6%) < 0.001
Cardiovascular disease 229 (13.2%) 47 (10.9%) 38 (7.7%) 57 (27.3%) 35 (17.4%) 20 (10.4%) 32 (15.4%) < 0.001
Chronic kidney disease 43 (2.5%) 9 (2.1%) 6 (1.2%) 12 (5.7%) 2 (1.0%) 7 (3.6%) 7 (3.4%) 0.006
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 18 (1.0%) 4 (0.9%) 2 (0.4%) 2 (1.0%) 1 (0.5%) 4 (2.1%) 5 (2.4%) 0.14
COVID-19 status and related fear/anxiety
 Participant diagnosed or treated for COVID-19 46 (2.7%) 18 (4.2%) 6 (1.2%) 13 (6.2%) 5 (2.5%) 2 (1.0%) 2 (1.0%) 0.003
 Hospitalized for COVID-19 13 (0.7%) 4 (0.9%) 6 (1.2%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.5%) 1 (0.5%) < 0.001
 Number of days hospitalized, median (IQR) 10.0 (8.0, 14.0) 13.0 (8.0, 14.0) 8.5 (8.0, 10.0) na 10.0 (10.0, 10.0) 14.0 (14.0, 14.0) 14.0 (14.0, 14.0) 0.44
 Immediate family members diagnosed/treated for COVID-19 52 (3.0%) 16 (3.7%) 13 (2.6%) 11 (5.3%) 8 (4.0%) 1 (0.5%) 3 (1.4%) 0.13
 Any confirmed cases of COVID-19 in other households in your locality 1192 (68.7%) 265 (61.6%) 401 (81.2%) 111 (53.1%) 110 (54.7%) 123 (64.1%) 182 (87.5%) < 0.001
 Experienced fear/anxiety related to COVID-19 1029 (59.3%) 267 (62.1%) 148 (30.0%) 208 (99.5%) 131 (65.2%) 134 (69.8%) 141 (67.8%) < 0.001
 Experienced stigma related to COVID-19 15 (0.9%) 8 (1.9%) 2 (0.4%) 4 (1.9%) 1 (0.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0.17
Coping with stress during the COVID-19 situation
 Very well 254 (14.6%) 77 (17.9%) 68 (13.8%) 44 (21.1%) 37 (18.4%) 6 (3.1%) 22 (10.6%) < 0.001
 Moderate 850 (49.0%) 190 (44.2%) 160 (32.4%) 164 (78.5%) 158 (78.6%) 92 (47.9%) 86 (41.3%)  
 With difficulty 281 (16.2%) 93 (21.6%) 40 (8.1%) 0 (0.0%) 4 (2.0%) 70 (36.5%) 74 (35.6%)  
 No Stress 349 (20.1%) 70 (16.3%) 226 (45.7%) 1 (0.5%) 2 (1.0%) 24 (12.5%) 26 (12.5%)  
  1. BMI Body mass Index, IQR interquartile range (p25, p75), INR Indian rupees, SD standard deviation, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019
  2. *p value reported for between group difference across study sites
  3. aDiabetes is defined based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) > =126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) and/or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) > = 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or self-reported or on anti-diabetic medications. bHypertension was defined as being on antihypertensive medications or a systolic blood pressure > =140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure > =90 mmHg. Cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease were self-reported and/or on medications