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Table 4 Change in frailty status and medical utilization via the multivariate logistic regression models

From: Frailty status changes are associated with healthcare utilization and subsequent mortality in the elderly population

Independent variables Risk of total outpatient visits Risk of outpatient visits for non-rehabilitation Risk of hospitalization admission Risk of emergency room utilization
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Change of frailty status
 Deterioration 2.01 0.97 4.18 2.05 0.99 4.26 0.75 0.06 9.16
 Unchanged pre-frail or frail 1.94 1.02 3.71 1.99 1.04 3.79 2.05 0.28 15.11 1.41 0.11 17.39
 Unchanged robustness 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group
 Improvement 1.13 0.65 1.98 1.16 0.67 2.02 1.00 Reference group 1.13 0.10 12.64
Age (years)
  ≤ 70 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group
 71–75 1.76 1.05 2.96 1.80 1.07 3.02 2.38 0.20 28.91 2.49 0.38 16.24
  > 75 2.48 1.46 4.22 2.50 1.47 4.25 1.95 0.17 22.80
Gender
 Women vs men 1.56 0.92 2.63 1.53 0.91 2.58 16.00 0.88 290.53 0.35 0.03 4.65
Education
 Illiterate 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group
  ≤ 6 years 1.66 0.71 3.91 1.57 0.67 3.69 0.79 0.06 11.18 1.00 Reference group-
 7–12 years 1.06 0.48 2.36 1.06 0.48 2.36 0.51 0.03 10.09 0.65 0.04 10.00
  ≥ 13 years 1.19 0.51 2.80 1.19 0.51 2.80 2.17 0.15 31.39 0.65 0.04 10.26
Regular exercise 1.49 0.86 2.58 1.48 0.86 2.56 3.50 0.34 36.21
Smoking
 No 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group
 Yes 0.59 0.27 1.28 0.59 0.27 1.28 19.03 0.63 571.75
 Former 1.42 0.69 2.92 1.42 0.69 2.91 4.93 0.31 78.00 4.41 0.48 40.66
Drinking
 No 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group 1.00 Reference group
 Yes 0.60 0.34 1.07 0.61 0.34 1.08 1.69 0.11 26.85 0.77 0.06 9.39
 Former 0.84 0.35 2.00 0.84 0.36 2.01 0.88 0.06 14.18
Cognitive impairment
 Yes vs No 0.57 0.22 1.49 0.58 0.22 1.52
Psudo-R2   10.7%    10.6%    26.6%    25.9%  
  1. Numbers in bold indicate statistically significant values. OR: odds ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval
  2. -: Not available due to no utilization event