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Table 3 Medical utilization in 2 months at 1-year follow-up among the elderly with different baseline frailty status and change of frailty status

From: Frailty status changes are associated with healthcare utilization and subsequent mortality in the elderly population

  Total n Number of outpatient visit Hospitalization admission Emergency room utilization
Total visits Non-rehabilitation Rehabilitation
Geometric mean ± SD Geometric mean ± SD Geometric mean ± SD n (%) n (%)
Baseline frailty status*
 Frail 37 1.1 ± 7.6 a 0.9 ± 6.5 a 0.0 ± 8.6 1 (2.7%) 1 (2.7%)
 Pre-frail 232 0.6 ± 8.4a 0.6 ± 8.3 a 0.0 ± 2.2 5 (2.2%) 1 (0.4%)
 Robust 279 0.4 ± 9.4 0.4 ± 9.3 0.0 ± 2.1 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.1%)
p-value+   < 0.001 < 0.001 0.281 0.977 0.427
Change of frailty status#
 Deterioration 73 0.7 ± 7.1 0.7 ± 7.1 c 0.0 ± 1.0 1 (1.4%) 0 (0.0%)
 Unchanged pre-frail or frail 133 0.8 ± 7.5 0.8 ± 7.0 c 0.0 ± 3.6 3 (2.3%) 1 (0.8%)
 Unchanged robustness 223 0.4 ± 9.8 b 0.3 ± 9.6 0.0 ± 2.3 0 (0.0%) 3 (1.4%)
 Improvement 119 0.5 ± 9.6 b 0.5 ± 9.4 0.0 ± 2.6 2 (1.7%) 1 (0.8%)
p-value+   < 0.001 < 0.001 0.197 0.972 0.952
  1. The numbers in bold indicate statistically significant p-values
  2. * Fried et al. proposed the definition of frailty status with the following components: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level
  3. #Changes in frailty status during 1-year period with the following categories: improvement of frailty status, no change between baseline and follow-up, and deterioration for frailty status
  4. +p-values were calculated using univariate negative binomial regression models for the number of outpatient visits, and univariate logistic regression models for the hospitalization and emergency use
  5. a Statistically significant compared with the robust group at baseline using pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05/3 comparisons)
  6. b Statistically significant compared with unchanged unchanged pre-frail or frail group at 1-year follow-up using pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05/6 comparisons)
  7. c Statistically significant compared with unchanged unchanged robustness group at 1-year follow-up using pairwise comparisons with Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05/6 comparisons)