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Table 1 Demographic and birth characteristics of the study population according to maternal body mass index (BMI) status early in pregnancy

From: Higher maternal BMI early in pregnancy is associated with overweight and obesity in young adult offspring in Thailand

    Maternal BMI status  
Characteristic   Underweight Normal weight Overweight/obesity P-value
n   62 513 53  
Familial characteristics Maternal BMI (kg/m2)   17.84 [17.21, 18.16] 21.06 [19.95, 22.37] 26.43 [25.41, 27.54]
Maternal height (cm)   153.2 ± 5.6 151.5 ± 4.9 151.2 ± 5.6 0.034
Maternal weight (kg)   41.3 ± 3.0 48.8 ± 4.8 61.2 ± 5.9 < 0.0001
Maternal age at childbirth (years)   24.1 ± 3.9 26.4 ± 4.6 28.4 ± 4.3 < 0.0001
Maternal education a Less than high school 39 (81.3%) 400 (90.7%) 45 (97.8%) 0.029
  High school or greater 9 (18.8%) 41 (9.3%) 1 (2.2%)  
Paternal education b Less than high school 31 (64.6%) 360 (81.6%) 42 (89.4%) 0.007
  High school or greater 17 (35.4%) 81 (18.4%) 5 (10.6%)  
Area of residence c Urban 51 (83.6%) 400 (78.1%) 41 (80.4%) 0.64
  Rural 10 (16.4%) 112 (21.9%) 10 (19.6%)  
Family income (baht per month) d   3300 [2000, 5000] 2400 [1500, 4000] 2700 [1800, 4000] 0.08
Offspring at birth Sex Female 32 (51.6%) 276 (53.8%) 30 (56.6%) 0.86
  Male 30 (48.4%) 237 (46.2%) 23 (43.4%)  
Birth weight (kg)   2.82 ± 0.56 2.98 ± 0.41 3.18 ± 0.38 < 0.0001
Birth length (cm)   48.5 ± 3.1 48.7 ± 4.3 49.8 ± 2.2 0.19
Gestational age at delivery (weeks) 38.9 ± 2.0 39.2 ± 1.7 39.4 ± 1.4 0.08
Offspring at follow-up Age (years)   20.6 [20.3, 21.0] 20.6 [20.3, 20.9] 20.6 [20.3, 20.9] 0.24
Current smoking   8 (12.9%) 57 (11.0%) 8 (15.1%) 0.55
  1. Data are median [quartile 1, quartile 3]; mean ± standard deviation; or n (%), as appropriate
  2. P-values for statistically significant differences (at p < 0.05) are shown in bold
  3. a n = 535 (85.2%)
  4. b n = 540 (85.4%)
  5. c Current area of residence of the offspring; n = 624 (99.4%)
  6. d Income recorded at the time of maternal recruitment to the original study in 1989–1990 (i.e. not adjusted for inflation)