Skip to main content

Table 4 Association between noise exposure and periodontitis

From: Are occupational and environmental noises associated with periodontitis? Evidence from a Korean representative cross-sectional study

Noise exposure Dependent: periodontitis (reference = no periodontitis) Dependent: severe periodontitis (reference = no periodontitis)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Occupational noise exposure
 No 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 1.25 (1.06–1.48) 1.20 (1.02–1.42) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.36 (1.08–1.72) 1.28 (1.02–1.62) 1.17 (0.92–1.48)
Duration of occupational noise exposure
 No 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  ≤ 120 months 1.20 (0.98–1.48) 1.14 (0.93–1.39) 1.07 (0.87–1.31) 1.29 (0.96–1.72) 1.18 (0.88–1.58) 1.07 (0.80–1.44)
  > 120 months 1.33 (1.04–1.70) 1.31 (1.03–1.67) 1.19 (0.93–1.51) 1.48 (1.08–2.03) 1.43 (1.04–1.97) 1.31 (0.95–1.80)
Hearing protection in workplace
 No exposure 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Occupational exposure with protection 1.12 (0.85–1.48) 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 1.00 (0.75–1.33) 1.49 (0.98–2.26) 1.40 (0.91–2.14) 1.27 (0.83–1.95)
 Occupational exposure without protection 1.29 (1.07–1.56) 1.24 (1.04–1.49) 1.15 (0.95–1.38) 1.33 (1.02–1.71) 1.24 (0.96–1.60) 1.13 (0.88–1.46)
Environmental noise exposure
 No 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Yes 1.43 (1.01–2.02) 1.34 (0.93–1.93) 1.21 (0.82–1.76) 2.30 (1.39–3.78) 2.10 (1.38–3.18) 1.88 (1.05–3.40)
Duration of environmental noise exposure
 No 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  ≤ 120 months 1.25 (0.81–1.93) 1.17 (0.75–1.83) 1.10 (0.68–1.77) 1.78 (0.97–3.24) 1.62 (0.74–3.57) 1.49 (0.64–3.48)
  > 120 months 1.65 (0.98–2.79) 1.55 (0.90–2.65) 1.33 (0.78–2.25) 2.74 (1.57–4.78) 2.69 (1.40–5.20) 2.35 (1.18–4.68)
Interaction between occupational & environmental noise
 Both no exposure 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
 Only environmental noise exposure 1.42 (0.94–2.17) 1.35 (0.89–2.05) 1.23 (0.81–1.86) 1.86 (1.00–3.50) 1.74 (0.90–3.37) 1.57 (0.80–3.08)
 Only occupational noise exposure 1.25 (1.05–1.48) 1.20 (1.01–1.42) 1.11 (0.93–1.32) 1.30 (1.02–1.66) 1.23 (0.97–1.56) 1.12 (0.88–1.43)
 Both exposure 1.60 (0.86–3.00) 1.45 (0.75–2.82) 1.23 (0.61–2.48) 3.52 (1.63–7.63) 3.06 (1.30–7.22) 2.62 (1.03–6.67)
  1. Model 1 was adjusted for age and gender
  2. Model 2 was adjusted for age, gender, residence, and income
  3. Model 3 was adjusted for age, gender, residence, income, occupation, marital status, diabetes, smoking, toothbrushing, and recent dental checkups,