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Table 3 Backward multiple linear regression models. Dependent variable: log mortality rate

From: Socioeconomic, demographic and healthcare determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic: an ecological study of Spain

  Coefficients and variance inflation factors (VIFs)
Explanatory variables Model 1 VIF Model 2 VIF Model 3 VIF Model 4 VIF
Constant −39.718**   −39.699***   −41,170***   − 38,270***  
Log Public Health Expenditure 2.51 8.65 2.50 8.38 2.381 8.23 1.774* 4.27
Nursing homes beds 0.464** 4.00 0.458*** 3.99 0.454*** 3.70 0.430*** 1.85
% Nursing homes >100b 0.017 4.10 0.016* 4.09 0.015* 3.66 0.011* 2.18
Urban population −0.009 3.06 − 0.009 2.97 − 0.009* 2.97 − 0.010* 2.96
Doctors −0.005** 2.85 −0.005*** 2.71 −0.005*** 2.40 − 0.005*** 2.32
Hospital Beds −0.004 3.75 −0.004* 3.21 −0.004* 2.70 −0.004** 2.69
Aeroplane passengers 0.0003** 7.79 0.0003** 7.40 0.0002*** 5.43 0.0002*** 3.95
Island region −0.746** 2.16 −0.749*** 1.79 −0.78*** 1.66 −0.819*** 1.46
Log GDP per capita 2.848*** 5.42 2.848*** 5.42. 3.00*** 4.49 3.215*** 2.37
PM2.5 concentration 0.033 4.09 0.033 3.98 0.029 3.90   
Gini Index − 263.49 4.87 −263.41 4.87     
% >65y population −0.021 2.43       
Adjusted R2 0.95   0.96   0.964   0.967  
p-value 0.003   0.000   0.000   0.000  
Shapiro-Wilk test (p-value)       0.45  
Durbin-Watson test        2.16  
  1. GDP Gross Domestic Product, PM2.5 Particulate Matter below 2.5 μm, VIF Variance Inflation Factor
  2. *Significant at p < .1 level, **Significant at p < 0.05 level, and *** Significant at p < 0.01 level