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Table 5 Results from the generalized linear model to predict the direct specific medical costs (EUR) by self-reported mental distress, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Socio-economic consequences of mental distress: quantifying the impact of self-reported mental distress on the days of incapacity to work and medical costs in a two-year period: a longitudinal study in Germany

  Specific costs in the first year Specific costs in the second year
M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value
Constant     93.72 67.94 129.28 < .001     132.74 96.86 181.92 < .001
Gender
 Malea 595.4 395.2 897.1 1.00     397.7 259.9 608.6 1.00    
 Female 721.4 395.2 897.1 1.21 0.96 1.53 .107 564.9 384.7 608.6 1.42 1.12 1.80 .004
Age groups
 18–33 yearsa 687.6 458.6 1030.8 1.00     464.9 304.7 709.4 1.00    
 34–49 years 641.7 439.5 937.0 0.93 0.76 1.15 .515 444.9 298.7 662.6 0.96 0.78 1.17 .673
 50–65 years 638.0 443.2 918.6 0.93 0.75 1.14 .484 514.8 349.6 758.1 1.11 0.90 1.36 .330
Marital status
 Marrieda 531.9 367.8 769.2 1.00     414.7 280.7 612.7 1.00    
 Not married 807.5 552.8 1179.6 1.52 1.31 1.76 < .001 541.7 363.4 807.5 1.31 1.13 1.52 < .001
Years of school education
 13 years (A-Level)a 492.3 334.1 725.4 1.00     474.3 315.0 714.1 1.00    
 10 years 648.7 449.0 937.3 1.89 1.04 1.40 .001 487.7 328.0 725.1 1.03 0.87 1.22 .753
 9 years 619.4 423.4 906.2 1.26 1.23 1.79 .029 541.4 360.9 812.2 1.14 0.94 1.39 .187
 No school-leaving certificate 932.6 573.7 1516.1 1.32 1.10 1.58 .003 403.0 238.8 680.2 0.85 0.55 1.31 .464
Employment Status
 Employeda 531.1 458.9 614.7 1.00     409.7 350.6 478.7 1.00    
 Unemployed 808.7 402.3 1625.8 1.52 0.76 3.05 .234 548.4 259.3 1159.7 1.34 0.63 2.85 .448
Mental distress category (HADS)
 No casea 199.0 134.8 293.9 1.00     213.1 142.2 319.5 1.00    
 Mild case 433.6 291.8 644.3 2.18 1.80 2.64 < .001 271.6 179.0 412.2 1.27 1.06 1.53 .010
 Moderate case 940.9 647.1 1368.0 4.73 3.97 5.63 < .001 661.1 445.5 980.9 3.10 2.63 3.66 < .001
 Severe case 2272.3 1521.0 3394.6 11.42 8.90 14.66 < .001 1318.9 858.7 2026.0 6.19 4.79 7.99 < .001
  1. Note. N = 2.287. t0 assessment of predictor variables, M Mean specific direct costs in Euro per person and year, CI 95% confidence interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. areference category. Method = log-link function, Tweedie-distribution of residuals