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Table 2 Results from the generalized linear model to predict the non-specific days of incapacity to work (due to any diagnosis) by self-reported mental distress, controlled for socio-demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Socio-economic consequences of mental distress: quantifying the impact of self-reported mental distress on the days of incapacity to work and medical costs in a two-year period: a longitudinal study in Germany

  Non-specific DIW in the first year Non-specific DIW in the second year
M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value M 95% CI Exp(B) 95% CI p-value
Constant     6.44 4.95 8.38 < .001     6.39 4.85 8.41 < .001
Gender
 Malea 32.2 22.9 45.4 1.00     22.5 15.2 33.2 1.00    
 Female 37.8 27.8 51.6 1.17 0.97 1.42 .093 27.2 19.0 39.1 1.21 1.00 1.47 .052
Age groups
 18–33 yearsa 28.4 20.1 40.2 1.00     21.0 14.2 31.2 1.00    
 34–49 years 35.0 25.4 48.2 1.23 1.03 1.48 .026 22.8 15.7 33.0 1.08 0.89 1.31 .412
 50–65 years 42.8 31.4 58.5 1.51 1.26 1.81 < .001 31.6 22.0 45.4 1.51 1.25 1.82 < .001
Marital status
 Marrieda 33.0 24.1 45.1 1.00     23.2 16.2 33.4 1.00    
 Not married 37.0 26.8 51.1 1.12 0.99 1.27 .072 26.3 18.1 38.2 1.13 0.99 1.29 .065
Years of school education
 13 years (A-Level)a 25.1 18.1 34.9 1.00     16.5 11.3 24.2 1.00    
 10 years 30.3 22.1 41.5 1.21 1.04 1.40 .016 20.7 14.3 30.1 1.23 1.07 1.47 .005
 9 years 37.9 27.5 52.2 1.51 1.23 1.79 < .001 29.6 20.3 43.0 1.79 1.50 2.13 < .001
 No school-leaving certificate 51.7 34.2 78.1 2.06 1.50 2.83 < .001 36.9 23.6 57.7 2.23 1.59 3.13 < .001
Employment Status
 Employeda 27.9 24.6 31.5 1.00     24.9 21.9 28.3 1.00    
 Unemployed 43.8 24.0 79.9 1.57 0.86 2.87 .143 24.6 12.1 49.8 0.99 0.48 2.02 .973
Mental distress category (HADS)
 No casea 15.8 11.4 22.1 1.00     13.1 9.0 19.1 1.00    
 Mild case 25.8 18.4 36.2 1.63 1.40 1.90 < .001 19.1 13.0 28.0 1.46 1.25 1.70 < .001
 Moderate case 44.7 32.2 61.9 2.82 2.45 3.25 < .001 30.6 21.1 44.3 2.34 2.02 2.71 < .001
 Severe case 81.4 58.0 114.3 5.14 4.11 6.41 < .001 48.9 32.7 73.0 3.73 2.95 4.72 < .001
  1. Note. N = 2.287. t0 Assessment of predictor variables. M Mean days of incapacity to work, CI 95% confidence interval, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. areference category. Method = log-link function, Tweedie-distribution of residuals