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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants and their crude associations with sleep disorders

From: Social capital and sleep disorders in Tibet, China

Variables Mean ± SD or Number (percentage, %) p-value Odds ratio
Overall
(n = 3194)
With sleep disorders
(n = 1271)
Without sleep disorders
(n = 1923)
Age (year) 59.1 ± 7.2 59.7 ± 7.2 58.6 ± 7.2 p < 0.001 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)***
Sex     p < 0.001  
 Male 1308 (41.0) 411 (32.3) 897 (46.6)   1.00 (ref.)
 Female 1886 (59.0) 860 (67.7) 1026 (53.4)   1.83 (1.58, 2.12)***
Hukou     p < 0.001  
 Urban 486 (15.2) 262 (20.6) 224 (11.6)   1.00 (ref.)
 Rural 2708 (84.8) 1009 (79.4) 1699 (88.4)   0.51 (0.42, 0.62)***
Marital status     p < 0.001  
 Unmarried 83 (2.6) 21 (1.7) 62 (3.2)   1.00 (ref.)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 344 (10.8) 165 (13.0) 179 (9.3)   2.72 (1.59,4.66)***
 Married/cohabitation 2767 (86.6) 1085 (85.4) 1682 (87.5)   1.90 (1.15, 3.14)*
Educational level    p < 0.001  
 No formal 1997 (62.5) 850 (66.9) 1147 (59.6)   1.00 (ref.)
 Primary school 972 (30.4) 330 (26.0) 642 (33.4)   0.69 (0.59, 0.81)***
 Junior high school or above 225 (7.0) 91 (7.2) 134 (7.0)   0.92 (0.69, 1.21)
Annual household income (Chinese yuan)    p < 0.05  
  < 12,000 824 (25.8) 339 (26.7) 485 (25.2) p < 0.05 1.00 (ref.)
 12,000-59,999 1864 (58.4) 701 (55.2) 1163 (60.5)   0.86 (0.73, 1.02)
 60,000-99,999 258 (8.1) 116 (9.1) 142 (7.4)   1.17 (0.88, 1.55)
  > 100,000 245 (7.7) 114 (9.0) 131 (6.8)   1.25 (0.93, 1.66)
Occupation     p < 0.001  
 Peasant 339 (10.6) 131 (10.3) 208 (10.8)   1.00 (ref.)
 Employed 543 (17.0) 192 (15.1) 351 (18.3)   0.87 (0.66, 1.15)
 Unemployed 2031 (63.6) 795 (62.6) 1236 (64.3)   1.02 (0.81, 1.29)
 Retired 279 (8.7) 151 (11.9) 128 (6.7)   1.87 (1.36, 2.58)**
Commercial insurance status    p < 0.001  
 No 3076 (96.4) 1205 (95.0) 1871 (97.3)   1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 116 (3.6) 64 (5.0) 52 (2.7)   1.91 (1.32, 2.78)*
Smoking status     p < 0.001  
 Never 2450 (76.7) 1047 (82.4) 1403 (73.0)   1.00 (ref.)
 Former 221 (6.9) 75 (5.9) 146 (7.6)   0.69 (0.52, 0.92)*
 Current 522 (16.3) 149 (11.7) 373 (19.4)   0.54 (0.44, 0.66)**
Drinking status     p < 0.001  
 Never 2816 (88.2) 1155 (90.9) 1661 (86.4)   1.00 (ref.)
 Former 91 (2.8) 42 (3.3) 49 (2.5)   1.23 (0.81, 1.87)
 Current 286 (9.0) 74 (5.8) 212 (11.0)   0.50 (0.38, 0.66)**
Body mass index     p < 0.001  
  < 24 626 (22.9) 272 (23.9) 354 (22.1)   1.00 (ref.)
  [24,28) 1569 (57.3) 609 (53.6) 960 (60.0)   0.83 (0.68, 1.00)*
  ≥ 28 542 (19.8) 255 (22.4) 287 (17.9)   1.16 (0.92, 1.46)
History of hypertension     0.24  
 No 2192 (69.7) 857 (67.4) 1335 (69.5)   1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 1001 (31.3) 414 (32.6) 587 (30.5)   1.10 (0.94, 1.28)
History of diabetes     0.49  
 No 3080 (96.5) 1222 (96.1) 1858 (96.7)   1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 113 (3.5) 49 (3.9) 64 (3.3)   1.16 (0.80, 1.70)
Depression     p < 0.001  
 No 3110 (97.6) 1219 (95.9) 1891 (98.6) p < 0.001 1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 78 (2.4) 52 (4.1) 26 (1.4)   3.10 (1.93, 5.00)**
Anxiety     p < 0.001  
 No 3104 (97.4) 1214 (95.5) 1890 (98.6)   1.00 (ref.)
 Yes 84 (2.6) 57 (4.5) 27 (1.4)   3.29 (2.07, 5.22)**
Family social capital 8.1 ± 2.1 8.1 ± 2.2 8.2 ± 2.0 0.42 0.97 (0.93, 1.00)*
Community/Society social capital 10.1 ± 2.0 10.0 ± 2.0 10.1 ± 2.0 0.64 0.98 (0.94, 1.01)
  1. Bolden numbers indicate statistical significance (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001)