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Table 3 Contribution of causes of death to changes in life expectancy and gender gap in life expectancy in Sweden between 1997 and 2018

From: Avoidable deaths in Sweden, 1997–2018: temporal trend and the contribution to the gender gap in life expectancy

Causes (ICD-10 codes) Women LE, 1997–2018, years (%) Men LE, 1997–2018, years (%) Gender gap in LE, 1997, years (%) Gender gap in LE, 2018, years (%) Change in gender gap in LE, years (%)
Amenable neoplasms (C54-C55, C62, C67, C73, C81, C91, D10-D36) 0.02 (0.7) .05 (1.3) 0.06 (1.1) 0.02 (0.6) −0.04 (− 2.0)
Hypertensive diseases (I10-I15) − 0.01 (− 0.3) −0.01 (− 0.1) 0.02 (0.4) 0.02 (0.7) 0.00 (0.1)
Cerebrovascular diseases (I60-I69) 0.19 (8.3) 0.25 (6.2) 0.17 (3.3) .08 (2.4) −0.09 (− 5.1)
Pneumonia (J12-J18) 0.03 (1.4) 0.03 (0.6) 0.03 (0.5) 0.03 (1.0) 0.00 (0.3)
Total amenable 0.30 (13.2) 0.46 (11.1) 0.41 (7.8) 0.23 (6.7) −0.18 (−9.8)
Preventable neoplasms (C00-C14, C15, C16, C22, C33-C34, C45) 0.06 (2.4) 0.28 (6.9) 0.36 (6.9) 0.14 (4.0) −0.22 (− 12.0)
Alcohol related and illicit drug use diseases (F10, K70, K73, K74, F11-F16, F18-F19) 0.02 (0.8) 0.18 (4.4) 0.27 (5.2) 0.11 (3.4) −0.16 (− 8.4)
Transport accidents (V01-V99) 0.06 (2.6) 0.15 (3.7) 0.19 (3.7) 0.10 (2.9) −0.09 (− 5.1)
Accidental injury (W00-X59) −0.06 (−2.7) − 0.11 (− 2.7) 0.25 (4.7) 0.35 (10.5) 0.11 (5.9)
Suicide and self-inflicted injuries (X60-X84, Y10-Y34) −0.01 (− 0.7) 0.08 (2.1) 0.38 (7.3) 0.30 (8.9) −0.08 (−4.2)
Total preventable 0.12 (5.4) 0.68 (16.5) 1.56 (30.0) 1.10 (32.6) −0.47 (−25.2)
Amenable & preventable neoplasms (C18-C21, C43, C50, C53) 0.23 (10.1) 0.06 (1.4) −0.35 (−6.7) − 0.23 (− 6.7) 0.12 (6.6)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (J40-J44) − 0.01 (− 0.5) 0.04 (1.0) 0.02 (0.5) − 0.03 (−1.0) −0.06 (−3.1)
Total amenable & preventable 0.22 (9.9) 0.16 (4.0) −0.22 (−4.1) − 0.20 (−5.9) 0.02 (0.9)
Ischaemic heart disease (I20-I25) 0.39 (17.2) 1.14 (27.7) 1.25 (23.9) 0.44 (13.1) −0.81(−43.6)
Total avoidable 1.03 (45.6) 2.44 (59.3) 3.00 (57.6) 1.57 (46.5) −1.44 (− 77.7)
Non-avoidable 1.23 (54.4) 1.67 (40.7) 2.21 (42.4) 1.80 (53.5) −0.41 (−22.3)
Total 2.26 (100) 4.11 (100) 5.22 (100) 3.37 (100) −1.85 (100)
  1. LE Life expectancy
  2. Negative values in columns (2) and (3) show a negative contribution to LE. Negative values in columns (4) and (5) indicate LE disadvantage in women. Negative values in column (6) indicate narrowing the gender gap in LE and positive values indicate widening the gender gap in LE