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Table 1 Protective and risk factors for psychological distress in the research data according to previous literature

From: Factors contributing to psychological distress in the working population, with a special reference to gender difference

Protective factors Conceptualisation in the survey questionnaire Reference
Sociodemographic Being married
Having children under 18 years of age
Ben-Zur 2018 [46]
Scott et al. 2010 [47]
Helbig et al. 2006 [56]
McKenzie et al. 2012 [57]
Social support Being active in societies, hobby groups, etc.
Having other people to give practical help
Having other people to give emotional support
Kendler et al. 2005 [33]
Amagasa et al. 2017 [38]
Takeda et al. 2015 [39]
Perrewe et al. 2002 [35]
Belle 1988 [36]
Work-family enrichment Being able to forget the work at home
Having more energy to be with children when also going to work
Greenhaus et al. 2006 [15]
Xu et al. 2018 [18]
Risk factors Conceptualisation in the survey questionnaire  
Sociodemographic Being divorced
Being widowed
Living alone
Ben-Zur 2018 [46]
Scott et al. 2010 [47]
Kaprio et al. 1987 [48]
Pulkki-Råback et al. 2012 [49]
Joutsenniemi et al. 2005 [50]
Lack of social support Loneliness Beutel et al. 2017 [41]
Hyland et al. 2019 [42]
Financial difficulties Having difficulties in covering household costs Nagasu et al. 2019 [66]
Holden et al. 2016 [67]
Informal caregiving Helping parents outside the home
Helping children outside the home
Helping other people outside the home
Lacey et al. 2018 [72]
Job related factors Low job satisfaction
High physical strain of work
Faragher et al. 2003 [27]
Hiesinger et al. 2019 [32]
Work-to-family conflict Feeling of neglecting domestic issues because of the work
Ignoring family when wholly absorbed in the work
Feeling inadequacy as a parent
Remery et al. 2019 [20]
Family-to-work conflict Finding it difficult to concentrate of work because of domestic issues Marchand et al. 2016 [13]
Byron 2005 [17]
Lunau et al. 2014 [23]
Eby et al. 2005 [24]
Harmful lifestyle factors Alcohol
Ranjit et al. 2019 [59]
Grant et al. 2004 [60]
Li et al. 2019 [61]
Berg et al. 2019 [62]