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Table 3 Factors associated with experiencing violence and discrimination among Ugandans during the COVID-19 lockdown, April 2020

From: Violence and discrimination among Ugandan residents during the COVID-19 lockdown

Variable Experienced violence or discrimination n = 145 (%) Not experienced violence or discrimination n = 1581 (%) (ref) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Days physically attended at work in the past week
 0–3 days 101 (69.4) 1249 (79.0) 1.00(ref) 1.00(ref)
  > 3 days 44 (30.3) 332 (21.0) 1.64 (1.13–2.3) 1.52 (1.03–2.23)
Age Group
  ≤ 17 years 2 (1.4) 10 (0.6) 1.00(ref)  
 18–28 years 45 (31.0) 400 (25.3) 0.62 (0.13–2.9)  
 29–39 years 66 (45.5) 640 (40.5) 0.57 (0.12–2.61)  
 40–49 years 20 (13.8) 327 (20.7) 0.34 (0.07–1.62)  
 50+ years 12 (8.3) 203 (12.8) 0.33 (0.65–1.64)  
Sex
 Male 103 (71.0) 912 (57.7) 1.80 (1.24–2.61) 1.60 (1.10–2.33)
 Female 42 (29.0) 669 (42.3) 1.00(ref) 1.00(ref)
Maximum Education
 Primary & None 2 (1.4) 1 (0.1) 1.00(ref)  
 Secondary 7 (4.8) 56 (3.5) 1.00  
 Tertiary (certificate, diploma, degree) 86 (59.3) 777 (49.2) 1.87 (0.81–4.31)  
 University (masters & Ph.D.) 50 (34.5) 747 (47.3) 1.65 (1.15–2.38)  
Marital status
 Single 58 (40.0) 618 (39.1) 1.00(ref)  
 Legally married 60 (41.4) 694 (43.9) 1.64 (0.55–4.86)  
 Cohabitation 21 (14.3) 226 (14.5) 1.25 (0.28–5.56)  
 Divorced & Widowed 6 (4.2) 43 (2.7) 0.99 (0.59–5.66)  
Currently lives with
 Parent (s) 27 (18.6) 280 (17.7) 1.10 (0.6–1.75)  
 Spouse/partner 65 (44.8) 776 (49.1) 0.91 (0.59–1.40)  
 Child (ren) 58 (40.0) 676 (42.8) 0.96 (0.64–1.46)  
 Sibling (s) or other relative (s) 36 (24.8) 411 (26.0) 0.98 (0.65–1.47)  
 Friends 15 (10.3) 100 (6.3) 1.68 (0.94–3.03)  
 Alone 122 (84.1) 1357 (85.8) 1.00(ref)  
Lives with housemates in age-groups
 Over 70 years 32 (22.0) 147 (9.0) 1.33 (1.13–1.58)  
 Between 18 and 70 years 126 (87.0) 1369 (86.0) 1.00(ref)  
 12 to 17 years 67 (46.0) 698 (44.0) 1.04 (0.92–1.18)  
 Under 12 years 108 (75) 962 (61.0) 1.22 (1.08–1.37)  
Lives in
 Rural/village 27 (18.6) 162 (10.3) 1.00(ref)  
 Within Kampala city center 13 (8.9) 173 (10.9) 0.60 (0.35–1.06)  
 Kampala suburb 30 (20.7) 658 (41.6) 0.27 (0.16–0.47)  
 Other town/city center 44 (30.3) 285 (18.0) 0.45 (0.22–0.90)  
 Other suburb 31 (21.4) 303 (19.2) 0.92 (0.55–1.55)  
Housing conditions
 House or apartment with garden 44 (30.3) 653 (41.3) 7.40 (0.66–83.4)  
 House or apartment No garden 37 (25.5) 436 (27.6) 1.87 (1.15–3.07)  
 Apartment with balcony 8 (5.5) 158 (10.0) 3.40 (1.92–6.06)  
 Apartment No balcony 29 (20.0) 228 (14.5) 0.75 (0.35–1.63)  
 A Room 21 (13.8) 87 (5.5) 1.30 (0.80–1.98)  
 Hut, Shack & Homeless 7 (4.9) 16 (1.0) 1.00(ref)  
What they do for a living
 Student 23 (15.9) 183 (11.8) 1.12 (0.54–2.34)  
 Jobless 11 (7.2) 113 (7.6) 1.00(ref)  
 Self-employed 28 (19.3) 256 (16.2) 1.30 (0.59–2.70)  
 Work for a person, institution, or company 52 (35.9) 679 (43.0) 0.80 (0.4–1.55)  
 Work for the government 31 (21.4) 347 (21.9) 0.92 (0.45–1.89)  
Current working conditions
 Worker from home 32 (22.1) 631 (39.9) 0.43 (0.27–0.68)  
 Worker in an open space (market, shop, roadside, etc.) 23 (15.9) 95 (6.0) 0.72 (0.39–1.31)  
 Worker in a closed indoor space alone (office, etc.) 15 (10.3) 177 (11.2) 0.83 (0.51–1.37)  
 Worker in a closed indoor space with several others (office, etc.) 27 (18.6) 273 (17.3) 2.04 (1.18–3.52)  
 Not applicable (jobless or student) 48 (33.1) 405 (25.6) 1.00(ref)  
Wealth Index
 1st Quintile (poorest) 50 (34.5) 302 (19.1) 1.00(ref)  
 2nd Quintile 31 (21.4) 308 (19.5) 0.61 (0.38–0.98)  
 3rd Quintile 33 (22.8) 335 (21.2) 0.59 (0.37–0.95)  
 4th Quintile 22 (29.0) 459 (29.0) 0.29 (0.17–0.45)  
 5th Quintile (richest) 9 (6.2) 177 (11.2) 0.31 (0.15–0.64)  
Satisfied with staying at home (on a scale of 5)
 Not Satisfied (1) 23 (15.9) 111 (7.0) 1.00(ref)  
 2 23 (15.9) 110 (6.9) 1.10 (0.53–1.90)  
 3 35 (24.1) 313 (19.8) 0.54 (0.31–0.95)  
 4 28 (19.3) 375 (23.7) 0.36 (0.20–0.65)  
 Very Satisfied (5) 36 (24.8) 672 (42.5) 0.26 (0.15–0.45)  
Has difficulty obtaining food
 Yes 100 (69.0) 634 (40.1) 3.32 (2.30–4.80)  
 No 45 (31.0) 947 (59.9) 1.00(ref)  
Overall failure to access food and/or essential health services
 Yes (were not able to access food and/or essential health services) 102 (70.3) 677 (42.8) 3.20 (2.20–4.60) 3.10 (2.14–4.50)
 No 43 (29.7) 90.4 (57.2) 1.00(ref) 1.00(ref)
  1. Adjusted model: McFadden R2 = 0.054, Hosmer Lemeshow test (Chi2 = 0.84, p value = 0.9744), ROC Curve AUC = 0.75