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Table 3 Methodological characteristics of other studies – scoping reviews, short/cut rapid reviews, and reports

From: Take-home naloxone programs for suspected opioid overdose in community settings: a scoping umbrella review

Document

Document type

Purpose

Topic

Studies reviewed related to naloxone

Year last study reviewed

Total RCTs

Bagley_2019 [45]

Scoping review

To identify US-based post-overdose intervention models described in peer-reviewed literature and implemented in public health and community settings

Effectiveness of naloxone and take-home naloxone (THN) for opioid overdose reversal

31

2018

Mauri_2020 [46]

Scoping review

To synthesize the available evidence on the effectiveness of prevalent state opioid policies on improving outcomes related to opioid prescribing and dispensing, patient behavior, and patient health

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

2

2018

2

Muzyk_2019 [47]

Scoping review

To identify, evaluate, and summarize published literature describing pharmacists’ attitudes toward naloxone and medications for opioid use disorder

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

Naloxone training and education

5

2017

Nielsen_2016 [48]

Scoping review

To understand what is currently known about community pharmacy supply of naloxone, with a particular focus on understanding current practice and supply models, and barriers that may need to be addressed in order to embed and optimize the expansion of naloxone supply through this community route.

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

16

2016

Ashton_2006 [49]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish whether intranasal naloxone is effective in suspected opiate overdose.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

8

2005

3

Barrie_2006 [50]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish whether naloxone may have an ‘awakening effect’ in patients who have not taken opiates, thereby clouding its use as a diagnostic manoeuvre.

Naloxone safety (harms or adverse events related to naloxone administration)

3

1999

1

Barrie_2008 [51]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish whether the training of intravenous drug users in the use of naloxone and the prescription of that drug to those users reduces mortality from opiate overdose.

Effectiveness of naloxone and take-home naloxone (THN) for opioid overdose reversal

3

2006

Brooker_2019 [52]

Short cut/rapid review

To explore the experience in administering naloxone in a home or community setting by community and lay users, community service staff, police and other non-healthcare professionals, as well as allied health professional.

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

11

2019

Clarke_2002 [53]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish whether patients with no recurrence of symptoms one hour after receiving naloxone for an opioid overdose can safely be discharged.

Overdose response after naloxone administration

5

2000

Ishiyama_2013 [54]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish whether nebulised naloxone is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous naloxone in reversing opioid toxicity.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

2

2013

Kerr_2008 [55]

Short cut/rapid review

To review the effectiveness, safety and utility of intranasal naloxone for the treatment of heroin overdose.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

8

2005

2

Marshall_2018 [56]

Short cut/rapid review

To establish psychological impacts of being a peer-helper in a take home naloxone program

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

27

2015

4

Kampman_2015 [57]

Practice guidelines

To provide information on evidence-based treatment of opioid use disorder

Recommendations for policy and practice and gaps in knowledge

Unknown

No date

Strike_2015 [58]

Practice guidelines

To evaluate the effectiveness of harm reduction programs that deliver prevention services to people who use drugs and are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C (HCV), hepatitis B (HBV), and other harms.

Recommendations for policy and practice and gaps in knowledge

22

2013

WHO_2014 [59]

Practice guidelines

To provide evidence-based recommendations on the availability of naloxone for people likely to witness an opioid overdose along with advice on the resuscitation and post-resuscitation care of opioid overdose in the community.

Recommendations for policy and practice and gaps in knowledge

3

2009

3

Williams_2019 [60]

Clinical practice guidelines

To develop and disseminate an evidence-based guideline and model protocol for administration of naloxone by EMS practitioners to persons with suspected opioid overdose.

Recommendations for policy and practice and gaps in knowledge

13

2016

3

CADTH_2007 [61]

Report

1) To evaluate the clinical benefit and harm of pre-hospital use of naloxone in adult patients with opiate overdose, 2) to evaluate the clinical evidence of the different routes of administering naloxone in adult patients with opiate overdose (in a pre-hospital setting), and 3) to evaluate existing guidelines for pre-hospital administration of naloxone to adult patients with opiate overdose.

Effectiveness of naloxone and take-home naloxone (THN) for opioid overdose reversal

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

10

2007

2

CADTH_2017 [62]

Report

To provide evidence on the comparative clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the various formulations and delivery mechanisms of naloxone for the treatment of opioid poisoning.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

3

2015

2

CADTH_2014 [63]

Report

To determine the comparative clinical effectiveness of intranasal (IN) versus intravenous (IV) naloxone for treatment of suspected or apparent opioid overdose in the pre-hospital setting.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

2

2010

CADTH_2019 [64]

Report

To investigate 1) the clinical effectiveness of naloxone administered in a community or home setting and 2) The cost-effectiveness of naloxone administered in a home or community setting.

Effectiveness of naloxone and take-home naloxone (THN) for opioid overdose reversal

Cost-effectiveness

6

2018

1

Lobmaier_2020 [65]

Report

To review interventions for non-fatal overdoses in order to make recommendations from the literature on a standardized patient pathway, especially as it relates to post-opioid overdose interventions.

Overdose response after naloxone administration

5

2019

PHO_2016 [66]

Report

To determine the effectiveness of rescue breathing only, conventional CPR, or neither by adult laypersons on survival in suspected opioid-associated resuscitation emergencies among adults in the community, compared to compression-only CPR used with or without naloxone.

Overdose response after naloxone administration

17

2016

Horton_2017 [67]

Mapping review

To map research into take home naloxone for people released from correctional settings in order to identify further research needs.

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

19

2016

3

Mueller_2015 [68]

Review

To classify existing publications on overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs and naloxone in community-based settings.

Provision, feasibility and acceptability of naloxone distribution

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

Cost-effectiveness

41

No date

2

McDonald_2018 [69]

Review

To examine published international patent applications of non-injectable naloxone formulations and contributory pharmacokinetic (PK) data. Three aims: 1) to trace the concept and product development by route of administration; 2) to describe the non-injectable naloxone formulations for which human in vivo data are available; and 3) to compare human PK data reported in the patent applications.

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

8

2015

Weaver_2018 [70]

Review

To investigate the various routes of naloxone administration for opioid reversal in the prehospital setting

Naloxone dosing or routes of administration

8

2015

2

Willman_2016 [71]

Review

To search the medical literature related to the following questions: [25] What are the medical risks to a heroin user who refuses ambulance transport after naloxone? [1] If the heroin user is treated in the emergency department with naloxone, how long must they be observed prior to discharge? [2] How effective in heroin users is naloxone administered by first responders and bystanders? Are there risks associated with naloxone distribution programs?

Overdose response after naloxone administration

29

2016