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Table 2 Prevalence ratios [95% confidence intervals] of depressive symptoms among men: the results of a multilevel analysis

From: Neighborhood farm density, types of agriculture, and depressive symptoms among older farmers: a cross-sectional study

  Null Model 1 Model 2
Animal husbandry farm densitya   1.00 [0.97,1.03] 1.00 [0.97,1.03]
Crop farm densitya   0.97 [0.93,1.01] 0.97 [0.93,1.01]
Population density quintile (ref. highest)
 High   1.00 [0.95,1.06] 1.00 [0.95,1.06]
 Middle   0.99 [0.92,1.06] 0.99 [0.92,1.06]
 Low   0.98 [0.91,1.06] 0.98 [0.90,1.06]
 Lowest   1.04 [0.93,1.16] 1.04 [0.93,1.16]
Area (ref. Tokai)
 Hokkaido   0.97 [0.82,1.14] 0.97 [0.82,1.14]
 Tohoku   1.20 [1.06,1.37] 1.20 [1.06,1.37]
 Hokuriku   1.10 [0.98,1.22] 1.10 [0.98,1.22]
 Kanto and higashiyama   1.07 [0.99,1.15] 1.07 [1.00,1.15]
 Kinki   1.22 [1.11,1.34] 1.22 [1.11,1.34]
 Kyushu   1.12 [0.98,1.29] 1.12 [0.98,1.29]
Daylight hours tertile (ref. short)
 Middle   1.00 [0.96,1.06] 1.01 [0.96,1.06]
 Long   1.07 [0.99,1.15] 1.07 [0.99,1.15]
Amount of rainfalla   1.00 [0.96,1.05] 1.00 [0.96,1.05]
Mean slope anglea   0.97 [0.95,1.00] 0.97 [0.95,0.99]
Individual-level factors
Age (ref. 65–74)
  75–84   1.04 [1.01,1.07] 1.04 [1.01,1.07]
   > = 85   1.19 [1.12,1.26] 1.19 [1.12,1.26]
 Education: >  9 years (Ref. <=9 years)   1.28 [1.24,1.32] 1.28 [1.24,1.32]
Equivalized household income tertile (Ref. high)
  Middle   1.65 [1.58,1.72] 1.65 [1.58,1.72]
  Low   2.33 [2.21,2.46] 2.33 [2.21,2.46]
 Living alone: yes (ref. no)   1.49 [1.40,1.58] 1.49 [1.40,1.58]
 Having spouse: no (ref: yes)   1.42 [1.36,1.50] 1.42 [1.36,1.50]
 Longest occupation: farmer (ref: non-farmer)   1.04 [0.95,1.14] 1.04 [0.93,1.16]
Farmer x animal husbandry farm density   0.96 [0.92,1.01]   
Farmer x crop farm density     0.97 [0.89,1.05]
Random-effect part of the model (contextual effects)
 Between municipality varianceb 0.016 (0.004) 0.003 (0.002) 0.003 (0.002)
  Median Rate Ratio 1.13 1.05 1.05
 Between neighborhood varianceb 0.002 (0.002) 0.000 (0.000) 0.000 (0.000)
  Median Rate Ratio 1.04 1.00 1.00
  1. aPer 1 standard deviation unit increase in population
  2. bStandard error in parentheses