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Table 4 Multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with hypertension awareness, treatment and control among Chinese adults with hypertension (n = 3579) in CHNS 2011

From: Factors associated with awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among 3579 hypertensive adults in China: data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

  Awareness Treatmenta Control Controlb
Women (vs. men) 1.37 (1.12–1.66) 0.94 (0.65–1.34) 1.32 (1.04–1.68) 1.17 (0.88–1.57)
Age group (years)
 18–49 (ref)     
 50–64 2.34 (1.92–2.85) 1.87 (1.32–2.65) 1.87 (1.43–2.44) 1.33 (0.92–1.92)
 65+ 3.13 (2.45–3.99) 2.57 (1.65–4.02) 1.84 (1.34–2.52) 1.06 (0.70–1.62)
Residence
 Urban (vs. rural) 1.75 (1.50–2.04) 1.50 (1.14–1.97) 2.16 (1.79–2.60) 1.79 (1.43–2.24)
Geographic regionc
 Central (ref)     
 Western 0.92 (0.75–1.12) 1.35 (0.93–1.96) 1.33 (1.01–1.75) 1.33 (0.95–1.88)
 Eastern 1.50 (1.27–1.77) 1.52 (1.14–2.01) 2.12 (1.72–2.63) 1.78 (1.37–2.31)
Ethnicity (vs. Han)
 Minority 0.74 (0.57–0.96) 0.78 (0.49–1.26) 0.47 (0.31–0.73) 0.52 (0.31–0.86)
Occupational status (vs. unemployed)
 Employed 0.78 (0.66–0.93) 0.74 (0.54–1.00) 0.92 (0.74–1.15) 0.96 (0.72–1.26)
Marital statusd (vs. single)
 Married 1.09 (0.89–1.34) 1.27 (0.89–1.83) 1.11 (0.87–1.43) 1.16 (0.86–1.57)
Health insurance (vs. not insured)
 Insured 1.32 (0.93–1.87) 1.44 (0.77–2.68) 1.08 (0.70–1.66) 0.90 (0.52–1.55)
Weight status
 Normal weight ((BMI < 24) (ref)     
 Overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28) 1.41 (1.20–1.66) 1.52 (1.15–2.01) 0.96 (0.79–1.16) 0.83 (0.65–1.05)
 Obese (BMI ≥ 28) 1.57 (1.29–1.92) 1.99 (1.39–2.84) 0.77 (0.60–0.98) 0.56 (0.42–0.76)
Education
  ≤ Elementary school (ref)     
 Middle school 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 1.08 (0.78–1.50) 1.39 (1.11–1.74) 1.57 (1.20–2.06)
 High school 1.34 (1.07–1.67) 1.42 (0.97–2.08) 1.65 (1.28–2.12) 1.53 (1.13–2.07)
  ≥ College 1.69 (1.23–2.32) 1.04 (0.64–1.71) 1.77 (1.26–2.48) 1.80 (1.20–2.70)
Smoking status
 Non-smoker (ref)     
 Ex-smoker 1.62 (1.16–2.24) 0.75 (0.46–1.23) 1.47 (1.04–2.09) 1.23 (0.80–1.88)
 Smoker 0.86 (0.70–1.04) 0.83 (0.59–1.18) 0.81 (0.63–1.05) 0.83 (0.61–1.14)
Alcohol consumption
 Drinking (vs. not drinking) 0.95 (0.79–1.13) 0.53 (0.39–0.72) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 1.03 (0.78–1.35)
  1. Hypertension was defined as having an average systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, self-reported being previously diagnosed as hypertension by a physician or taking antihypertension drugs currently;
  2. Non-smoker was defined as subjects who responded negatively to “have you ever smoked cigarettes?”; ex-smoker was defined as subjects who responded positively to questions “have you ever smoked cigarettes?” but negatively to “do you still smokes cigarettes?”; current smoker was defined as subjects who responded both positive answers to questions “have you ever smoked cigarettes?” and “do you still smokes cigarettes?”; drinking refers to subject who regularly drink alcohol since last year
  3. Awareness of hypertension status was defined as a self-report of hypertension diagnosed by a Physician before, or taking any antihypertensive drugs;
  4. Control of hypertension was defined as blood pressure (SBP/DBP) < 140/90 mmHg;
  5. aTreatment among subjects who were aware of their hypertension;
  6. bcontrol among participant who took antihypertension medications;
  7. cWestern China includes Guangxi, Guizhou and Chongqing; Eastern China includes Shanghai, Beijing, Jiangsu, Liaoning and Shandong; Central China includes Henan, Hubei, Henan and Heilongjiang
  8. dSingle includes never married, divorced, widowed and separated;