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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of Chinese adults with hypertension based on China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011

From: Factors associated with awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among 3579 hypertensive adults in China: data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

  All Women Men P-value**
Sample size (N) 3579 1775 1804  
Age (year, mean ± SD) 60.0 ± 12.4 61.6 ± 11.7 58.5 ± 12.9 <  0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 5.4 25.4 ± 5.2 25.2 ± 5.6 0.13
Residence (%)
 Urban 41.5 41.5 41.5 1.0
 Rural 58.5 58.5 58.5  
Geographic regionb (%)     0.33
 Western China 20.1 21.1 19.1  
 Eastern China 49.4 48.6 50.3  
 Central China 30.5 30.3 30.6  
Marital statusa (%)     <  0.001
 Married 83.2 76.0 90.3  
 Single 16.8 24.0 9.7  
Ethnicity     1.0
 Han 92.0 92.0 90.0  
 Minority 8.0 8.0 8.0  
Occupational status (%)     <  0.001
 Employed 44.1 32.1 56.0  
 Unemployed 55.9 67.9 44.0  
Health insurance (%)
 Insured 95.8 95.9 95.7 0.82
 Not insured 4.2 4.1 4.3  
Education (%)     <  0.001
  ≤ Elementary school 48.2 60.8 35.7  
 Middle school 27.4 22.4 32.4  
 High school 17.1 13.0 21.1  
  ≥ College 7.3 3.8 10.8  
Smoking (%)     <  0.001
 Non-smoker 65.9 94.3 38.0  
 Ex-smoker 6.4 0.8 11.8  
 Smoker 27.7 4.9 50.2  
Alcohol consumption (%)     <  0.001
 Drinking 34.5 8.7 59.9  
 Not drinking 65.5 91.3 40.1  
Weight status (%)     0.01
 Normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 24) 36.4 36.0 36.8  
 Underweight (BMI < 18.5) 2.2 2.3 2.0  
 Overweight (24 ≤ BMI < 28) 41.0 39.1 42.8  
 Obese (BMI ≥ 28) 20.5 22.6 18.4  
  1. Hypertension was defined as having an average systolic blood pressure BP ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, self-reported being previously diagnosed as hypertension by a physician or taking antihypertension drugs currently;
  2. Non-smoker was defined as subjects who responded negatively to “have you ever smoked cigarettes?”; ex-smoker was defined as subjects who responded positively to questions “have you ever smoked cigarettes?” but negatively to “do you still smokes cigarettes?”; current smoker was defined as subjects who responded both positive answers to questions “have you ever smoked cigarettes?” and “do you still smokes cigarettes?”; drinking refers to subject who regularly drink alcohol since last year
  3. **p-value was calculated from t-test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables
  4. aSingle includes never married, divorced, widowed and separated;
  5. bWestern China includes Guangxi, Guizhou and Chongqing; Eastern China includes Shanghai, Beijing, Jiangsu, Liaoning and Shandong; Central China includes Henan, Hubei, Henan and Heilongjiang;