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Table 6 Association between birth weight for gestational age and fat-free mass indicators

From: Prematurity and body composition at 6, 18, and 30 years of age: Pelotas (Brazil) 2004, 1993, and 1982 birth cohorts

  FFM (kg) %FFM FFMI (kg/m2)
β (CI95%) β (CI95%) β (CI95%)
Gestational age Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
Male
6 y (2004 Cohort) p < 0.001 p = 0.031 p = 0.246 p = 0.175 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
  SGA −1.39 (− 1.91; −0.87) −0.09 (− 0.46; 0.29) 1.12 (− 0.32; 2.57) −1.07 (− 0.43; 2.13) −0.39 (− 0.55; − 0.23) −0.40 (− 0.60; − 0.20)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 1.10 (0.73; 1.47) 0.35 (0.08; 0.62) −0.24 (−1.27; 0.78) 0.85 (− 0.43; 2.13) 0.34 (0.23; 0.46) 0.27 (0.12; 0.42)
18 y (1993 Cohort) p = 0.181 p = 0.496 p = 0.333 p = 0.121 p = 0.380 p = 0.208
  SGA 0.99 (−0.11; 2.09) 0.47 (−0.40; 1.34) − 0.14 (−1.47; 1.18) −0.02 (− 1.37; 1.33) 0.12 (− 0.29; 0.53) 0.06 (− 0.35; 0.48)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 0.45 (−0.62; 1.53) −0.15 (− 0.99; 0.69) −0.97 (− 2.26; 0.31) −1.36 (− 2.67; 0.05) 0.27 (− 0.13; 0.67) 0.37 (− 0.04; 0.77)
30 y (1982 Cohort) p = 0.327 p = 0.599 p = 0.968 p = 0.754 p = 0.774 p = 0.697
  SGA −0.54 (−1.95; 0.86) 0.63 (− 0.60; 1.86) 0.12 (− 1.50; 1.74) −0.08 (− 1.79; 1.63_ 0.03 (− 0.33; 0.40) 0.17 (− 0.23; 0.57)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA −0.85 (− 2.05; 0.35) 0.16 (− 0.92; 1.24) −0.13 (−1.52; 1.25) −0.56 (− 2.02; 0.90) −0.10 (− 0.41; 0.21) 0.02 (− 0.33; 0.37)
Female
6 y (2004 Cohort) p < 0.001 p = 0.633 p = 0.011 p = 0.738 p < 0.001 p = 0.010
  SGA −1.03 (− 1.58; −0.49) −0.17 (− 0.63; 0.29) 1.44 (− 0.14; 3.01) −0.75 (− 2.81; 1.30) −0.33 (− 0.50; − 0.15) −0.13 (− 0.37; 0.10)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  VLGA 0.96 (0.59; 1.33) 0.08 (−0.22; 0.39) −1.18 (− 2.26; − 0.11) 0.16 (− 1.21; 1.53) 0.28 (0.17; 0.40) 0.22 (0.06; 0.37)
18 y (1993 Cohort) p = 0.361 p = 0.411 p = 0.170 p = 0.348 p = 0.102 p = 0.267
  SGA 0.47 (−0.24; 1.17) 0.36 (−0.23; 0.94) − 0.95 (−2.04; 0.15) −0.67 (−1.75; 0.40) 0.40 (− 0.00; 0.81) 0.30 (− 0.10; 0.70)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA −0.15 (− 0.93; 0.63) 0.26 (− 0.39; 0.91) 0.32 (− 0.89; 1.53) 0.34 (− 0.85; 1.54) −0.13 (− 0.58; 0.32) −0.11 (− 0.56; 0.33)\
30 y (1982 Cohort) p = 0.512 p = 0.698 p = 0.093 p = 0.132 p = 0.435 p = 0.679
  SGA 0.08 (−0.85; 1.01) 0.37 (−0.49; 1.22) − 0.70 (−2.12; 0.71) −0.15 (−1.65; 1.34) 0.18 (− 0.12; 0.49) 0.15 (− 0.18; 0.47)
  AGA ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA −0.48 (−1.33; 0.37) 0.11 (− 0.67; 0.89) 1.18 (− 0.12; 2.47) 1.34 (− 0.01; 2.69) −0.05 (− 0.33; 0.23) 0.02 (− 0.27; 0.32)
  1. FFM fat-free mass, %FFM percentage of fat-free mass, FFMI fat-free mass index, SGA small for gestational age, AGA adequate for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age
  2. β refers to linear regression models. Models were adjusted for maternal (education, age, family income at birth, smoking during pregnancy, and pre-gestational BMI) and the cohort participant characteristics (skin color and height (except for FMI and BMI))