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Table 5 Association between birth weight for gestational age and body fat indicators

From: Prematurity and body composition at 6, 18, and 30 years of age: Pelotas (Brazil) 2004, 1993, and 1982 birth cohorts

  FM (kg) %FM FMI (kg/m2) BMI* (kg/m2)
β (CI95%) β (CI95%) β (CI95%) β (CI95%)
Gestational age Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted Crude Adjusted
Male
6 y (2004 Cohort) p = 0.002 p = 0.483 p = 0.246 p = 0.164 p = 0.034 p = 0.497 p < 0.001 p = 0.030
  SGA −0.91 (− 1.58; − 2.04) 0.35 (− 0.40; 1.11) −1.12 (− 2.57; 0.32) 1.20 (− 0.57; 2.97) −0.43 (− 0.82; − 0.03) −0.28 (− 0.78; 0.22) −0.44 (− 0.71; − 0.16) −0.31 (− 0.66; 0.03)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 0.44 (−0.03; 0.91) −0.19 (− 0.74; 0.36) 0.24 (− 0.78; 1.27) −0.79 (− 2.08; 0.49) 0.17 (− 0.11; 0.45) 0.06 (− 0.31; 0.43) 0.35 (0.15; 0.55) 0.22 (− 0.03; 0.47)
18 y (1993 Cohort) p = 0.351 p = 0.429 p = 0.333 p = 0.300 p = 0.414 p = 0.327 p = 0.389 p = 0.300
  SGA 0.43 (−1.02; 1.87) 0.31 (− 1.12; 1.74) 0.14 (− 1.18; 1.47) 0.09 (− 1.23; 1.42) 0.14 (− 0.33; 0.60) 0.14 (− 0.33; 0.61) 0.04 (− 0.13; 0.22) 0.18 (− 0.07; 0.43)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 1.00 (−0.40; 2.41) 0.91 (−0.26; 2.56) 0.97 (− 0.31; 2.26) 1.02 (− 0.27; 2.30) 0.29 (− 0.16; 0.74) 0.34 (− 0.12; 0.79) 0.12 (− 0.05; 0.29) − 0.01 (− 0.27; 0.24)
30 y (1982 Cohort) p = 0.999 p = 0.343 p = 0.698 p = 0.754 p = 0.959 p = 0.332 p = 0.946 p = 0.356
  SGA 0.01 (−2.04; 2.06) 1.67 (− 0.71; 4.06) −0.12 (− 1.74; 1.50) 0.08 (−1.63; 1.79) 0.09 (− 0.57; 0.74) 0.54 (− 0.23; 1.31) 0.13 (− 0.74; 1.00) 0.73 (− 0.29; 1.74)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 0.00 (−1.75; 1.76) 0.70 (− 1.30; 2.70) 0.13 (− 1.25; 1.52) 0.56 (− 0.90; 2.02) 0.05 (− 0.51; 0.61) 0.25 (− 0.40; 0.89) − 0.05 (− 0.79; 0.70) 0.21 (− 0.64; 1.06)
Female
6 y (2004 Cohort) p < 0.001 p = 0.934 p = 0.011 p = 0.517 p < 0.001 p = 0.612 p < 0.001 p = 0.351
  SGA −0.94 (−1.70; − 0.18) 0.20 (− 0.93; 1.33) −1.44 (− 3.01; 0.14) 1.46 (− 1.11; 4.03) −0.53 (− 0.99; − 0.07) 0.40 (− 0.39; 1.19) − 0.41 (− 0.67; − 0.14) 0.32 (− 0.21; 0.77)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA 0.93 (0.41; 1.45) −0.02 (− 0.87; 0.83) 1.18 (0.11; 2.26) − 0.65(− 2.58; 1.28) 0.45 (0.14; 0.76) − 0.11 (− 0.70; 0.48) 0.34 (0.16; 0.52) − 0.13 (− 0.47; 0.21)
18 y (1993 Cohort) p = 0.100 p = 0.719 p = 0.170 p = 0.697 p = 0.110 p = 0.633 p = 0.219 p = 0.438
  SGA 1.29 (−0.03; 2.61) 0.46 (−1.43; 2.36) 0.95 (− 0.15; 2.0) 0.06 (− 1.51; 1.63) 0.50 (− 0.00; 1.00) 0.23 (− 0.49; 0.95) 0.15 (− 0.02; 0.32) 0.12 (− 0.12; 0.36)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
  LGA −0.49 (−1.94; 0.87) 0.40 (−1.67; 2.48) − 0.32 (− 1.53; 0.89) 0.60 (− 1.08; 2.36) − 0.14 (− 0.69; 042) 0.15 (− 0.63; 0.94) 0.01 (− 0.17; 0.20) 0.05 (− 0.22; 0.31)
30 y (1982 Cohort) p = 0.046 p = 0.065 p = 0.093 p = 0.999 p = 0.056 p = 0.900 p = 0.093 p = 0.883
  SGA 1.12 (−0.92; 3.16) 1.29 (− 0.83; 3.41) 0.70 (− 0.71; 2.12) 0.07 (− 1.54; 1.68) 0.53 (− 0.24; 1.30) 0.15 (− 0.50; 0.80) 0.71 (− 0.30; 1.72) 0.20 (− 0.68; 1.07)
  AGA ref Ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
LGA −1.95 (−3.82; 3.16) − 1.78 (− 3.72; 0.15) −1.18 (−2.47; 0.12) 0.09 (− 1.29; 1.46) − 0.64 (− 1.35; 0.07) 0.03 (− 0.52; 0.59) − 0.69 (− 1.62; 0.24) −0.06 (− 0.81; 0.68)
  1. FM fat mass, %FM percentage of fat mass, FMI fat mass index, BMI body mass index, SGA small for gestational age, AGA adequate for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age. At 6 years, BMI in Z-score
  2. β refers to linear regression models. Models were adjusted for maternal (education, age, family income at birth, smoking during pregnancy, and pre-gestational BMI) and the cohort participant characteristics (skin color and height (except for FMI and BMI))