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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics of women and female genital mutilation among women aged 15–49 and girls aged 0–14 in Chad (Weighted, N = 6334)

From: Factors associated with female genital mutilation among women of reproductive age and girls aged 0–14 in Chad: a mixed-effects multilevel analysis of the 2014–2015 Chad demographic and health survey data

Variables Frequency (n) Percentage (%) FGM in women aged 15–49 χ2 (p-value) FGM in girls aged 0–14 χ2 (p-value)
Individual level factors
Age     0.40 (0.818)   392.2 (< 0.001)
  15–24 1884 29.7 48.6   1.2  
  25–34 2530 40.0 51.0   14.5  
  35 years and above 1920 30.3 50.8   22.3  
Mother’s education     150.7 (< 0.001)   172.6 (< 0.001)
  No education 4290 67.7 56.8   16.9  
  Primary 1382 21.8 39.5   5.3  
  Secondary/Higher 662 10.5 30.2   3.0  
Partner’s education     171.5(< 0.001)   214.6 (< 0.001)
  No education 3768 59.5 58.1   18.5  
  Primary 1179 18.6 42.3   6.9  
  Secondary/Higher 1387 21.9 36.4   2.7  
Marital status     10.1 (0.001)   33.1 (< 0.001)
  Married 5757 90.9 51.4   13.9  
  Cohabiting 577 9.1 38.6   3.3  
Employment status     29.0 (< 0.001)   15.5 (< 0.001)
  Not working 2995 47.3 48.8   12.6  
  Working 3339 52.7 51.5   13.2  
Ethnicity     7.6 (< 0.001)   497.04 (< 0.001)
  Sara 2065 32.6 44.8   4.6  
  Gorane 256 4.0 11.5   3.9  
  Arab 833 13.2 89.8   24.9  
  Ouaadai/maba/massalit/mimi 647 10.2 82.0   30.2  
  Kenemu-Borno 446 7.1 10.2   3.1  
  Boulala/medego/kouka 282 4.5 61.3   17.1  
  Other 1804 28.5 40.5   13.6  
Religion     256.1 (< 0.001)   233.3 (< 0.001)
  Christianity 2628 41.5 35.1   3.7  
  Islam 3583 56.6 62.2   20.0  
  Other 123 2.0 30.0   4.1  
Frequency of reading newspaper/magazine    53.6 (< 0.001)   43.9 (< 0.001)
  Not at all 5913 93.3 51.7   13.6  
  Less than once a week/at least once a week 421 6.7 29.6   3.0  
Frequency of listening to radio     47.6 (< 0.001)   44.3 (< 0.001)
  Not at all 4689 74.0 53.2   14.5  
  Less than once a week/at least once a week 1645 26.0 41.8   8.5  
Frequency of watching television     17.5 (< 0.001)   26.7 (< 0.001)
  Not at all 5582 88.1 51.3   13.6  
  Less than once a week/at least once a week 752 11.9 42.5   7.7  
Respondent circumcised     N/A   974.5 (< 0.001)
  No 3153 49.8 N/A   0.4  
  Yes 3181 50.2 N/A   25.3  
Wealth quintile     102.4 (< 0.001)   32.9 (< 0.001)
  Poorest 1590 21.0 57.1   14.1  
  Poorer 1328 20.9 53.2   12.7  
  Middle 1320 20.2 47.9   13.9  
  Richer 1280 18.4 46.5   14.4  
  Richest 1238 19.5 45.5   9.3  
Contextual factors
Place of residence     2.1 (0.147)   17.3 (< 0.001)
  Urban 1390 22.0 49.4   10.3  
  Rural 4944 78.0 50.6   13.6  
Community literacy level     170.2 (< 0.001)   180.7 (< 0.001)
  Low 2271 35.9 60.6   20.3  
  Medium 2057 32.5 45.0   11.0  
  High 2007 31.8 40.7   6.4  
Community socio-economic status     103.2 (< 0.001)   58.4 (< 0.001)
  Low 4025 63.5 53.4   14.6  
  Medium 575 9.1 40.1   8.9  
  High 1734 27.4 44.1   10.4  
  1. Source: 2014–2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey
  2. NB: N/A indicates that prevalence for FGM and chi-square test results were not applicable for that variable