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Table 6 Class characteristics identified with latent class growth analysis

From: Housing first, connection second: the impact of professional helping relationships on the trajectories of housing stability for people facing severe and multiple disadvantage

Variable Sharp rise, sustained and decline housing Hardly anytime housed High rise, sustained and decline housing
TAU, n (%) 327 (26.4) 529 (66.6) 50 (46.7)
HF, n (%)
HF ICM, n (%)
913 (73.6)
587 (64.3)
265 (33.4)
161 (60.8)
57 (53.3)
30 (52.6)
Age (years) 41 39 39
Gender (%)
 Female 35 27 29.9
 Male 65 73 70.1
Education (%)
  < High school 53.1 61.6 56.1
 Completed high school/some higher education 19.4 16.9 21.5
 Completed trade school/ undergraduate 27.4 21.5 22.4
Age first time homeless 16 27 31
Total time homeless (years) 5.9 6.8 3.9
Childhood trauma (Ace total score) 4.3 4.7 4.2
Diagnosis (MINI %)
 Depression 51.3 51.4 52.3
 Mood disorder with psychotic features 16.1 16.9 14
 Psychotic disorders 35.4 38.8 35.5
 Panic disorder 22.3 24.1 24.3
 Manic or hypomanic Episode 12.8 13.6 15
 PTSD 29.6 28.5 26.2
Baseline mental illness
 severity (CSI cut-off, %) 75.9 75.1 74.5
Social network (MCAS %)
 Nobody (baseline) 6 5.4 3.7
 Nobody (6 months) 2.2 5.1 3.3
 Nobody (12 months) 1.6 5.8 1.1
 Nobody (18 months) 1.2 5.9 1.1
 Nobody (24 months) 0.7 2.4 0.2
Time in prison during study (%)
 6 months 1.5 7 3.7
 12 months 1.12 9.6 2.8
 18 months 0.31 12.46 3.89
 24 months 1.13 10.24 8.03
Substance problems (GAIN SPS high use, past year)
 12 months 36.9 46.2 46.7
 24 months 28.5 35.5 43
  1. Note: ACE Adverse Childhood Experiences; MINI = Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; CSI Colorado Symptom Index; MCAS Multnomah Community Ability Scale (social network item); Gain-SPS Global Assessment of Individual Need Substance Problem Scale (only high use reported here); TAU Treatment as Usual; ICM Intensive Case Management