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Table 3 Analgesic purchases and associated factors in 1420 GOAL participants. A multivariate logistic regression model

From: Analgesic purchases among older adults – a population-based study

  Analgesic purchases
Level 1 analgesics Level 2–3 analgesics
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Pain levelsa   < 0.001*   < 0.001*
Group I 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
Group II 0.54 (0.31 to 0.93)   0.56 (0.40 to 0.79)  
Group III 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82)   0.41 (0.29 to 0.58)  
Group IV 0.30 (0.17 to 0.53)   0.36 (0.24 to 0.53)  
Male sex 0.74 (0.53 to 1.01) 0.060 1.13 (0.86 to 1.48) 0.38
Age 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) 0.45 0.99 (0.97 to 1.01) 0.36
Education years 1.01 (0.97 to 1.06) 0.56 1.01 (0.97 to 1.04) 0.78
Smoking 1.21 (0.78 to 1.86) 0.39 1.03 (0.72 to 1.46) 0.87
AUDIT-Cb 1.00 (0.93 to 1.08) 0.92 1.00 (0.94 to 1.07) 0.99
LTPAc   0.39   0.34
 Low 1.00 (Reference)   1.00 (Reference)  
 Moderate 1.33 (0.88 to 2.00)   0.86 (0.61 to 1.22)  
 High 1.27 (0.76 to 2.14)   0.80 (0.51 to 1.25)  
MetSd 0.91 (0.67 to 1.22) 0.52 1.09 (0.86 to 1.40) 0.47
Number of morbiditiese 1.30 (1.04 to 1.63) 0.020* 1.53 (1.30 to 1.79) < 0.001*
  1. *P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Level 1 analgesics: paracetamol, NSAIDs; Level 2–3 analgesics: weak to strong opioids. aPain levels: Groups I–IV: group I [0–45, moderate to very severe pain intensity and interference], group II [47.5–70], group III [77.5–90], group IV [100, no pain intensity and interference at all]; bAUDIT-C Alcohol unit consumption per week, cLTPA Leisure-time physical activity, dMetS Metabolic syndrome, eNumber of morbidities sum of each participant’s diagnosed morbidities