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Table 3 Factors associated with hemoglobin concentrations (g/L) in adolescents from rural Western China, 2016 (N = 1517)

From: Anemia and associated factors among adolescent girls and boys at 10–14 years in rural western China

  Mean (SD) Unadjusted Adjusteda
Mean differences 95% CI p values Mean differences 95% CI p values
Maternal age/yearsb
 Q1: ≤35 131.9 (15.1) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2: 36–39 133.6 (14.1) 1.65 −0.20, 3.49 0.08 0.54 −1.48, 2.56 0.60
 Q3: ≥40 134.0 (15.3) 2.06 0.29, 3.83 0.02 1.63 −1.26, 4.52 0.27
Maternal education
 < 3 years 129.3 (15.9) Ref.    Ref.   
 Primary 131.9 (15.5) 2.58 −0.84, 6.00 0.14 3.28 −0.24, 6.79 0.07
 Secondary 133.2 (15.1) 3.86 0.56, 7.15 0.02 4.34 0.68, 8.01 0.02
 High school+ 135.8 (12.1) 6.49 2.83, 10.14 0.001 4.83 0.44, 9.22 0.03
Maternal occupation
 Farmer 135.0 (14.1) Ref.    Ref.   
 Others 131.8 (15.3) 3.21 1.68, 4.74 < 0.001 2.44 0.62, 4.27 0.01
Paternal age/yearb
 Q1: ≤37 132.0 (13.9) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2: 38–41 133.6 (15.7) 1.60 −0.21, 3.41 0.08 0.84 −1.16, 2.83 0.41
 Q3: ≥42 133.6 (15.3) 1.68 −0.14, 3.51 0.07 0.57 −2.46, 3.59 0.71
Paternal education
 < 3 years 126.9 (14.9) Ref.    Ref.   
 Primary 132.3 (16.8) 5.41 −1.56, 12.39 0.13 6.05 −0.94, 13.03 0.09
 Secondary 132.6 (15.3) 5.70 −1.06, 12.46 0.10 4.98 −1.92, 11.88 0.16
 High school+ 134.6 (12.6) 7.73 0.88, 14.59 0.03 4.25 −2.89, 11.39 0.24
Paternal occupation
 Farmer 133.3 (13.50 Ref.    Ref.   
Others 132.9 (17.3) 0.39 −1.22, 1.99 0.64 −1.50 −3.29, 0.29 0.10
Household wealth
 Low 131.6 (15.7) Ref.    Ref.   
 Medium 131.9 (16.0) 0.37 −1.50, 2.24 0.70 0.46 −1.42, 2.35 0.63
 High 135.3 (12.8) 3.71 1.93, 5.48 < 0.001 2.52 0.53, 4.50 0.01
Randomized regimens
 Folic acid 133.4 (15.7) Ref.    Ref.   
 Iron/folic acid 132.4 (13.7) −0.96 −2.78, 0.86 0.30 −0.78 −2.59, 1.02 0.39
 Multiple micronutrients 133.2 (15.3) −0.22 −2.05, 1.62 0.82 −0.28 −2.10, 1.53 0.76
Adolescent age
 10 131.2 (14.5) Ref.    Ref.   
 11 131.0 (15.7) −0.24 −3.86, 3.81 0.90 1.08 −2.59, 4.76 0.56
 12 134.0 (13.9) 2.75 −0.87, 6.37 0.14 3.05 −0.74, 6.84 0.12
 13–14 135.0 (14.7) 3.78 0.06, 7.51 0.05 3.01 −1.05, 7.08 0.15
Sex
 Male 134.9 (15.2) Ref.    Ref.   
 Female 130.5 (14.1) −4.44 −5.94, −2.94 < 0.001 −5.04 −6.64, −3.45 < 0.001
Height for age z score
 Stunting (<−2SD) 127.7 (13.5) −4.31 −9.48, 0.86 0.10 −2.21 −7.51, 3.08 0.41
 -2 to 1 SD 132.0 (14.5) Ref.    Ref.   
 Above average (>1SD) 137.6 (15.7) 5.55 3.69, 7.42 < 0.001 2.96 0.92, 5.00 0.004
Whether having an illness in the last 2 weeks
 Yes 131.7 (13.8) Ref.    Ref.   
 No 133.9 (15.4) 2.14 0.61, 3.67 0.01 1.58 0.06, 3.10 0.04
Puberty developmentc
 Pre-puberty 128.7 (14.2) Ref.    Ref.   
 Mild 132.7 (14.8) 3.95 1.83, 6.08 < 0.001 3.26 1.07, 5.44 0.004
 Above mild 135.3 (14.9) 6.53 4.39, 8.68 < 0.001 5.83 3.27, 8.39 < 0.001
Times of consuming flesh foods per day (Mean/SD)d
 Q1 (Lowest) 130.9 (15.7) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2 133.7 (13.5) 2.79 0.82, 4.76 0.01 2.28 0.31, 4.24 0.02
 Q3 (Highest) 133.7 (15.4) 2.73 0.83, 4.64 0.01 1.31 −0.64, 3.26 0.19
Times of consuming beans per day (Mean/SD)d
 Q1 (Lowest) 132.7 (15.3) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2 132.6 (14.9) −0.04 −1.73, 1.64 0.96 −0.87 −2.56, 0.82 0.31
 Q3 (Highest) 134.3 (14.2) 1.64 0.56, 3.84 0.14 0.27 −1.93, 2.47 0.81
Times of consuming dairy products per day (Mean/SD)d
 Q1 (Lowest) 132.2 (15.6) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2 133.3 (14.2) 1.13 −0.62, 2.87 0.21 0.81 −0.94, 2.56 0.37
 Q3 (Highest) 133.7 (14.7) 1.50 −0.41, 3.41 0.12 0.85 −1.06, 2.77 0.38
Times of consuming egg per day (Mean/SD)d
 Q1 (Lowest) 131.3 (14.2) Ref.    Ref.   
 Q2 134.2 (14.7) 2.86 1.14, 4.58 0.001 2.64 0.94, 4.34 0.002
 Q3 (Highest) 133.4 (14.5) 2.11 0.25, 3.97 0.03 2.45 0.62, 4.29 0.01
Meal frequency in 24 h
 Two times 131.1 (15.7) Ref.    Ref.   
 Three times and four times 134.5 (14.1) 3.39 1.88, 4.90 < 0.001 1.69 0.13, 3.25 0.03
  1. aThe adjusted model included all the variables in the table except for dietary variables. And then, each of the dietary variables were put in the adjusted model above one at a time
  2. bParents’ age was categorized by its tertiles
  3. cPuberty development was defined by the Tanner stages
  4. dThe frequency of consuming foods was converted into continuous variables namely times per day, which were then categorized by its tertiles. Flesh foods included meat, poultry and fish