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Table 2 Multilevel binary logistic regression results for factors associated with modern contraceptive use among married women in Senegal

From: Modern contraceptive utilization and its associated factors among married women in Senegal: a multilevel analysis

Variables Model 0 Model I Model II Model III
Decision making
 No decision making (ref)     
 Decision making one   1.24 (1.10–1.40)***   1.18 (1.04–1.33)**
 Decision making two   1.28 (1.09–1.50)**   1.20 (1.02–1.41)*
Wife-beating
 Accept (ref)     
 Refuse   1.13 (1.01–1.26)*   1.11 (0.99–1.24)
Media exposure
 No (ref)     
 Yes   1.54 (1.24–1.91)***   1.44 (1.16–1.79)**
Women’s educational level
 No formal education (ref)     
 Primary school   1.24 (1.09–1.42)**   1.21 (1.06–1.38)**
 Secondary school   1.42 (1.19–1.70)***   1.37 (1.14–1.64)***
 Higher   1.98 (1.34–2.92)**   1.88 (1.28–2.76)**
Religion
 Muslim (ref)     
 Christian   1.08 (0.78–1.50)   1.03 (0.75–1.43)
Wealth index
 Poorest (ref)     
 Poorer   1.01 (0.86–1.19)   0.97 (0.82–1.14)
 Middle   1.41 (1.18–1.69)***   1.20 (0.99–1.46)
 Richer   1.72 (1.40–2.11)***   1.31 (1.03–1.67)*
 Richest   1.79 (1.40–2.27)***   1.22 (0.91–1.62)
Women’s age
 15–19 years (ref)     
 20–24 years   1.18 (0.88–1.57)   1.15 (0.87–1.54)
 25–29 years   1.10 (0.82–1.47)   1.05 (0.78–1.40)
 30–34 years   0.98 (0.72–1.33)   0.94 (0.69–1.28)
 35–39 years   0.94 (0.68–1.29)   0.88 (0.64–1.22)
 40–44 years   0.70 (0.50–0.98)*   0.66 (0.47–0.92)*
 45–49 years   0.47 (0.32–0.68)***   0.44 (0.30–0.63)***
Number of living children
 No child (ref)     
 1–2 children   12.60 (8.23–19.30)***   12.55 (8.20–19.21)***
 3–4 children   24.47 (15.72–38.08)***   24.51 (15.76–38.11)***
 5 or more children   35.49 (22.38–56.27)***   36.01 (22.73–57.05)***
Ethnicity
 Wolof (ref)     
 Poular   0.87 (0.75–1.01)   0.90 (0.77–1.06)
 Serer   1.10 (0.91–1.32)   1.08 (0.90–1.31)
 Mandingue/soc   1.01 (0.81–1.26)   1.04 (0.82–1.31)
 Diola   0.76 (0.55–1.05)   0.70 (0.50–0.99)*
 Sonink   0.93 (0.58–1.49)   0.99 (0.62–1.57)
 Other Senegalese   0.96 (0.75–1.23)   0.96 (0.74–1.23)
 Other   0.68 (0.48–0.98)*   0.66 (0.46–0.95)*
Husband educational level
 No formal education (ref)     
 Primary school   1.37 (1.17–1.60)***   1.32 (1.13–1.54)***
 Secondary school   1.18 (0.99–1.41)   1.14 (0.95–1.36)
 Higher   1.45 (1.12–1.88)**   1.43 (1.10–1.85)**
Ideal number of children
 0 child (ref)     
 1 child   0.79 (0.18–3.41)   0.89 (0.21–3.80)
 2 children   1.85 (1.07–3.17)*   1.95 (1.13–3.35)*
 3 children   1.07 (0.70–1.66)   1.13 (0.73–1.75)
 4 children   1.17 (0.80–1.70)   1.25 (0.86–1.83)
 5 children   1.22 (0.84–1.77)   1.31 (0.90–1.90)
 6 children and above   1.06 (0.74–1.52)   1.14 (0.79–1.63)
 Non-numeric response   0 .80 (0.55–1.18)   0.90 (0.62–1.33)
Desire for more children
 Wants within 2 years (ref)     
 Wants after 2 years   2.12 (1.85–2.44)***   2.09 (1.81–2.40)***
 Wants, unsure timing   0.92 (0.70–1.22)   0.93 (0.70–1.23)
 Undecided   1.47 (0.96–2.25)   1.52 (0.99–2.32)
 Wants no more   2.50 (2.09–2.99)***   2.46 (2.06–2.94)***
Distance to health facility
 Big problem (ref)     
 Not a big problem   1.17 (1.02–1.33)*   1.10 (0.97–1.26)
Region
 Dakar (ref)     
 Ziguinchor    0.60 (0.42–0.86)** 0.69 (0.46–1.04)
 Diourbel    0.50 (0.35–0.69)*** 0.47 (0.33–0.67)***
 Saint Louis    0.73 (0.53–1.00) 0.81 (0.57–1.14)
 Tambacounda    0.56 (0.39–0.81)** 0.77 (0.51–1.16)
 Kaolack    0.63 (0.46–0.87)** 0.70 (0.50–1.00)
 Thies    0.99 (0.74–1.32) 0.96 (0.70–1.32)
 Louga    0.67 (0.48–0.93)* 0.75 (0.52–1.07)
 Fatick    0.82 (0.59–1.14) 0.75 (0.53–1.08)
 Kolda    0.67 (0.48–0.93)* 0.85 (0.59–1.23)
 Matam    0.30 (0.21–0.44)*** 0.35 (0.23–0.53)***
 Kaffrine    0.86 (0.61–1.20) 1.04 (0.72–1.51)
 Kedougou    0.37 (0.25–0.57)*** 0.51 (0.32–0.80)**
 Sedhiou    0.60 (0.43–0.86)** 0.70 (0.48–1.03)
Place of residence
 Urban (ref)     
 Rural    0.76 (0.63–0.91)** 0.76 (0.63–0.93)**
Community literacy level
 Low (ref)     
 Medium    1.47 (1.22–1.78)*** 1.30 (1.07–1.59)**
 High    1.65 (1.29–2.120)*** 1.31 (1.01–1.71)*
Community socioeconomic level
 Low (ref)     
 Medium    1.15 (0.93–1.42) 1.08 (0.86–1.36)
 High    1.10 (0.88–1.37) 1.04 (0.81–1.33)
Community level modern contraceptive knowledge
 Low (ref)     
 Medium    1.37 (1.15–1.62)*** 1.34 (1.12–1.61)***
 High    1.46 (1.22–1.76)*** 1.37 (1.13–1.67)***
Random effect result
 PSU variance (95% CI) 0.52 (0.42–0.65) 0.30 (0.23–0.40) 0.16 (0.11–0.22) 0.16 (0.11–0.24)
 ICC 0.13 0.08 0.04 0.04
 LR Test X2 = 443.55, p < 0.001 X2 = 152.76, p < 0.001 X2 = 76.02, p < 0.001 X2 = 59.26, p < 0.001
 Wald chi-square and p-value   X2 = 883.97, p < 0.001 X2 = 343.82, p < 0.001 X2 = 1028.03, p < 0.001
Model fitness
 Log-likelihood − 5926.8 − 5113.3 − 5793.98 −5048.23
 AIC 11,857.64 10,316.66 11,631.96 10,226.48
 BIC 11,872.32 10,645.76 11,793.46 10,701.84
 PSU 400 400 400 400
  1. Notes: AOR Adjusted odds ratios, COR Crude odds ratio *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05. Ref = reference