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Table 3 Univariable models examining the association of individual-level school climate predictors at 10th grade with mental health outcomes at 11th grade

From: The longitudinal relationship of school climate with adolescent social and emotional health

  Self-efficacy (β, 95%CI) Grit (β, 95%CI) Depression (β, 95%CI) Hopelessness (β, 95%CI) Stress at school (β, 95%CI) Stress about future (β, 95%CI)
School environment
 Order 0.06 (0, 0.11) 0.04 (−0.01, 0.10) −0.10 (−0.16, − 0.05) −0.05 (− 0.11, 0) − 0.04 (− 0.09, 0.02) − 0.03 (− 0.09, 0.02)
 Safety 0.09 (0.03, 0.14) 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.10) − 0.10 (− 0.15, − 0.04) − 0.09 (− 0.15, − 0.04) −0.10 (− 0.15, − 0.04) −0.12 (− 0.18, − 0.07)
Teacher relationship
 Respect for teachers 0.12 (0.06, 0.18) 0.07 (0.02, 0.13) −0.05 (− 0.11, 0) − 0.10 (− 0.16, − 0.05) −0.07 (− 0.13, − 0.02) −0.09 (− 0.14, − 0.03)
 Teacher support for college 0.08 (0.02, 0.14) 0.02 (− 0.04, 0.07) − 0.06 (− 0.12, − 0.01) − 0.08 (− 0.13, − 0.02) − 0.04 (− 0.1, 0.02) −0.04 (− 0.09, 0.02)
Disciplinary Style
 Average 0 0 0 0 0 0
 Authoritative 0.40 (0.25, 0.56) 0.24 (0.09, 0.40) −0.27 (− 0.42, − 0.12) −0.26 (− 0.42, − 0.11) −0.30 (− 0.46, − 0.15) −0.24 (− 0.39, − 0.09)
 Authoritarian −0.16 (− 0.45, 0.13) − 0.10 (− 0.37, 0.18) −0.09 (− 0.37, 0.20) 0.05 (− 0.23, 0.33) 0.01 (− 0.27, 0.30) −0.26 (− 0.54, 0.03)
 Indulgent 0.11 (− 0.20, 0.43) − 0.10 (− 0.41, 0.21) 0.15 (− 0.17, 0.46) − 0.06 (− 0.38, 0.25) 0.04 (− 0.28, 0.35) 0 (− 0.32, 0.31)
 Neglectful −0.11 (− 0.25, 0.02) −0.06 (− 0.19, 0.08) 0.11 (− 0.03, 0.24) 0.05 (− 0.08, 0.19) − 0.05 (− 0.19, 0.08) −0.04 (− 0.18, 0.09)
  1. Univariable models include each school climate variable individually in separate models, adjusted for student demographics and parental characteristics as well as social-emotional characteristics at 9th grade (baseline)
  2. The outcomes and the predictors school order, safety, respect for teachers, teacher support for college are continuous variables that have been standardized to mean of 0 and sd=1
  3. Results in bold indicate p< 0.05
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