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Table 2 Participants’ characteristics in the thought groups

From: Thoughts about health and patient-reported outcomes among people with diabetes mellitus: results from the DiaDec-study

Characteristics ‘no thoughts’ group (n = 334) ‘low frequency and negative thoughts’ group (n = 124) ‘low frequency and positive thoughts’ group (n = 155) ‘high frequency and negative thoughts’ group (n = 88) ‘high frequency and positive thoughts’ group (n = 25)
n (%) / (M ± SD) n (%) / (M ± SD) n (%) / (M ± SD) n (%) / (M ± SD) n (%) / (M ± SD)
Age (years) 68.4 ± 8.9 67.4 ± 10.1 68.6 ± 9.7 63.4 ± 11.0 65.5 ± 9.4
Female 127 (38.0) 52 (41.9) 53 (34.2) 28 (31.8) 13 (52.0)
Education
No graduation 61 (18.8) 33 (26.8) 21 (13.9) 25 (29.4) 6 (25.0)
Other graduation 248 (76.5) 81 (65.9) 123 (81.5) 54 (63.5) 17 (70.8)
University degree 15 (4.6) 9 (7.3) 7 (4.6) 6 (7.1) 1 (4.2)
Employment 77 (23.7) 28 (22.8) 32 (21.2) 31 (35.6) 9 (36.0)
Married and living together 260 (78.3) 93 (75.6) 114 (74.0) 60 (68.2) 16 (64.0)
Migration background 43 (12.9) 18 (14.6) 29 (18.7) 25 (28.4) 5 (20.0)
Type of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes 21 (6.4) 12 (9.7) 13 (8.4) 11 (12.6) 2 (8.0)
Type 2 diabetes 294 (89.1) 95 (76.6) 135 (87.7) 70 (80.5) 22 (88.0)
Other 2 (0.6) 3 (2.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (2.3) 0 (0.0)
Not known to participants 13 (3.9) 14 (11.3) 6 (3.9) 4 (4.6) 1 (4.0)
Diabetes duration (10 ≤ years) 150 (46.7) 64 (53.3) 80 (52.6) 42 (50.0) 13 (52.0)
Oral glucose-lowering drugs 237 (71.0) 86 (69.4) 102 (65.8) 54 (61.4) 17 (68.0)
Insulin 79 (23.7) 37 (29.8) 48 (31.0) 37 (42.0) 12 (48.0)
No. of comorbidities 3.3 ± 1.6 3.8 ± 2.0 3.9 ± 2.3 4.4 ± 2.5 4.5 ± 3.3
Perceived health status
Very good–excellent 44 (13.1) 4 (3.2) 13 (8.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.0)
Good 240 (71.9) 48 (39.0) 95 (61.3) 13 (15.3) 10 (40.0)
Fair–poor 50 (15.0) 71 (57.8) 47 (30.3) 72 (84.7) 14 (56.0)
Physical summary score of the SF-12 46.5 ± 9.1 36.9 ± 9.5 42.3 ± 10.8 31.8 ± 8.8 33.8 ± 12.1
Mental summary score of the SF-12 54.5 ± 7.6 44.9 ± 10.5 52.4 ± 8.5 37.6 ± 9.9 43.4 ± 11.3
High diabetes-related distress 12 (3.9) 28 (23.7) 11 (7.5) 36 (46.2) 5 (20.0)
Depressive symptoms 11 (3.3) 23 (18.5) 3 (1.9) 40 (45.5) 8 (33.3)