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Table 3 Odds ratiosa and 95% CIs of alcohol and/or gun involved suicides associated with 10 percentage point increase in alcohol policy score or gun policy score, compared to no alcohol or firearm involvement

From: Alcohol policies, firearm policies, and suicide in the United States: a lagged cross-sectional study

  Alcohol Involved Only OR (95% CI)
(n = 1817)
Firearm Involved
Only OR (95% CI)
(n = 2481)
Alcohol and Firearm- Involved
OR (95% CI) (n = 1451)
Alcohol or Firearm- Involved OR (95% CI)
(n = 5479)
APS Predictor
Model
  Unadjusted GEE Model 0.80 (0.72, 0.88)* 1.14 (1.06, 1.23)* 1.02 (0.93, 1.11) 1.00 (0.95, 1.06)
  Adjusted GEE Model Ib (individual-level covariates) 0.78 (0.70, 0.86)* 1.15 (1.06, 1.23)* 1.02 (0.93, 1.11) 0.99 (0.93, 1.05)
  Adjusted GEE Model IIc (individual-and state-level covariates) 0.83 (0.62, 1.09) 1.05 (0.86, 1.28) 0.99 (0.71, 1.38) 0.91 (0.74, 1.12)
  Adjusted GEE Model III (addition of bac testing rate to model II) 0.96 (0.75, 1.23) 0.94 (0.76, 1.16) 1.06 (0.76, 1.50) 0.97 (0.78, 1.20)
  Adjusted GEE Model IV (addition of gun policy score to model III) 0.84 (0.60, 1.17) 0.62 (0.47, 0.81)* 0.46 (0.30, 0.71)* 0.66 (0.51, 0.85)*
Firearm Policy Predictor
Model
  Unadjusted GEE Model 1.06 (1.02, 1.10)* 0.83 (0.80, 0.85)* 0.89 (0.86, 0.93)* 0.93 (0.90, 0.95)*
  Adjusted GEE Model I (individual-level covariates) 1.07 (1.03, 1.11)* 0.81 (0.79, 0.84)* 0.89 (0.85, 0.93)* 0.93 (0.90, 0.96)*
  Adjusted GEE Model II (individual-and state-level covariates) 0.93 (0.82, 1.05) 0.92 (0.86, 0.99)* 0.81 (0.70, 0.94)* 0.90 (0.80, 0.99)*
  Adjusted GEE Model III (addition of bac testing rate to model II) 0.96 (0.84, 1.10) 0.90 (0.84, 0.96)* 0.82 (0.71, 0.95)* 0.90 (0.81, 1.01)
  Adjusted GEE Model IV (addition of APS to model III) 0.92 (0.77, 1.10) 0.79 (0.72, 0.87)* 0.68 (0.57, 0.82)* 0.82 (0.71, 0.94)*
  1. Referent group is neither gun nor alcohol involved
  2. a Odds ratio was based on 10 point increase in APS or Gun Law score
  3. b Adjusted GEE model I controls for victim’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and mental health status
  4. c Adjusted GEE model II additionally controls for state proportions of male, age ≥ 21, racial and ethnic composition, college degree or above, household income, unemployment, police rate per capita, degree of urbanization, and religiosity
  5. *Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals are significant at α = 0.05