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Table 3 Factors independently associated with internal stigma score using multivariable negative binomial regression (N = 495)

From: Determinants and effects or consequences of internal HIV-related stigma among people living with HIV in Morocco

  aIRR[95%CI] p-value
Highest level of formal education completed
 No formal education 1.38 [1.16;1.65] < 0.001
 Primary or secondary school 1.15 [0.98;1.35] 0.082
 Technical college or University 1  
Current employment status
 In full-time 1  
 In part-time 0.84 [0.73;0.96] 0.013
 Unemployed and not working at all 0.92 [0.82;1.04] 0.183
Current relationship status
 Married or cohabiting 1  
 In a relationship but not living together 1.12 [0.88;1.43] 0.352
 Single or divorced or separated 1.11 [0.99;1.24] 0.074
 Widow or widower 0.99 [0.83;1.19] 0.952
Belongs to at least one key population
 No 1  
 Yes 1.15 [1.03;1.28] 0.016
Reactions of other adult family members when they first knew about HIV status*
 Very discriminatory or discriminatory 1.28 [1.11;1.49] 0.001
 No difference 1.05 [0.90;1.23] 0.501
 Very supportive or supportive 1  
 Not applicable 1.09 [0.96;1.23] 0.188
Psychological pressure or manipulation by husband or wife or partner in which HIV-positive status was used*
 Never or once 1  
 A few times or often 1.17 [1.00;1.37] 0.053
Avoiding HIV prevention / testing / treatment services for fear of stigmatization by staff
 No 1  
 Yes 1.16 [1.05;1.28] 0.004
Denied health services (including dental care) because of HIV status*
 No 1  
 Yes 1.16 [1.03;1.32] 0.014
 Not applicable 1.05 [0.93;1.18] 0.441
Perceived health
 Excellent or very good or good 1  
 Fair or poor 1.23 [1.11;1.36] < 0.001
  1. *In the last 12 months