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Table 4 Relationship analysis for diarrhea and individual and community level factors based on Bayesian approach in Ethiopian under-five children in 2016

From: Trends and determinants of diarrhea among under-five children in Ethiopia: cross-sectional study: multivariate decomposition and multilevel analysis based on Bayesian approach evidenced by EDHS 2000–2016 data

Fixed effect Category Estimates SE AOR 95%CrI of AOR Rhat Bulk_
ESS
Tail_
ESS
L-CrI U-CrI
훽0 intercept*   −5.8 0.7 0.00 0.00 0.01 1 5814 9217
Sex of child Male (ref)         
Female −0.11 0.07 0.89 0.78 1.02 1 10,361 5807
Twin Yes* 0.26 0.07 1.3 1.1 1.5 1 19,613 8366
No (ref)         
Weight of child at birth Small −0.19 0.11 0.83 0.67 1.02 1 19,808 14,137
Average (ref)         
Big* 0.48 0.11 1.63 1.62 2.02 1 20,612 13,727
Birth order First (ref)         
2–3 −0.36 0.26 0.7 0.43 1.2 1 10,903 11,827
4–5 − 0.25 0.29 0.78 0.44 1.38 1 10,235 10,907
= > 6 −0.29 0.3 0.76 0.42 1.35 1 10,209 10,942
Birth interval = < 23 month −0.03 0.08 0.97 0.83 1.13 1 20,381 13,298
= > 24 month (ref)         
Age of child < 1 year (ref)         
= > 1 < 2 year* 0.22 0.08 1.3 1.06 1.47 1 9648 5850
= > 2 < 3 year − 0.15 0.09 0.86 0.72 1.03 1 3604 4530
= > 3 < 4 year* −0.54 0.1 0.6 0.48 0.71 1 3251 4625
= > 4 < 5 year −1.23 0.12 0.3 0.23 0.4 1 3377 4837
Breast feeding Still breast feed (ref)         
Ever breast feed but not now −0.09 0.8 0.91 0.78 1.07 1 24,022 13,505
Never breast feed −0.27 0.31 0.80 0.42 1.42 1 22,263 12,015
Rota vaccine vaccinated (ref)         
Not vaccinated* 0.32 0.13 1.44 1.12 1.9 1 9367 6075
Measles’ vaccine Yes (ref)         
No* 0.2 0.05 1.2 1.1 1.33 1 14,128 6067
Vitamin supplementation Yes (ref)         
No −0.12 0.06 0.88 0.78 1.01 1 25,507 14,935
Wealth index Poor* .95 0.23 2.6 1.7 4.03 1 16,045 14,275
Medium 0.09 0.24 1.1 0.68 1.74 1 14,461 14,475
Rich (ref)         
Mothers working status Working (ref)         
Not working 0.24 0.2 1.3 1.0 1.6 1 8311 5878
Health insurance Yes (ref)         
No* 0.78 0.27 2.2 1.3 3.8 1 7888 5393
Continuation of above table
Fixed effect Category Estimates SE AOR 95%CrI of AOR Rhat Bulk_
ESS
Tail_
ESS
L-CrI U-CrI
Distance to health facility Not long (ref)         
Long * 1 0.12 2.7 2.2 3.5 1 6206 5558
Mother’s educational level No formal education (ref)         
Primary 0.1 00.1 1.1 0.8 1.4 1 8748 10,747
Secondary 0.1 00.3 1.1 0.6 1.9 1 11,355 12,382
Higher −0.5 0.36 0.6 0.1 1.3 1 7021 1091
Health insurance Yes (ref)         
No* 0.78 0.27 2.2 1.3 3.8 1 7888 5393
Distance to health facility Not long (ref)         
Long * 1 0.12 2.7 2.2 3.5 1 6206 5558
Father’s educational level No formal education (ref)         
Primary 0.3 0.1 1.3 0.99 1.7 1 9386 12,115
Secondary 0.25 0.2 1.3 0.8 1.9 1 8416 10,409
Higher 0.1 0.3 1.1 0.6 2 1 9987 10,442
Household head Male (ref)         
Female* −0.22 0.13 0.81 0.61 1.05 1 8669 6074
Media exposure Yes (ref)         
No 0.27 0.19 1.30 0.89 1.9 1 17,430 14,082
family members = < 5(ref)         
= > 6* 0.35 0.13 1.41 1.1 1.83 1 7623 5854
No of under five children = < 2 (ref)         
= > 3* 0.26 0.11 1.3 1.1 1.61 1 9026 5453
Source of drinking water Improved (ref)         
Not improved −0.17 0.12 0.84 0.66 1.06 1 19,868 13,216
Child waste disposal Safe (ref)         
Not safe* 1.44 0.14 4.2 3.2 5.6 1 7238 5718
Type of toilet Improved (ref)         
Not improved 0.21 0.13 1.23 0.95 1.6 1 18,719 13,886
Random effect          
\( {{\boldsymbol{\sigma}}_{{\boldsymbol{\mu}}_{\mathbf{0}}}}^{\mathbf{2}} \)   0.36 0.05   0.25 0.52 1 1500 2913
ICC   0.11    0.10 0.13    
LOO   7931        
WAIC   7904        
  1. (Ref = reference category), (* = significant at 5% level of significance), (SE = standard error), (CrI = credible interval), (L-CrI = lower credible interval), (U-CrI = Upper credible interval)