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Table 3 Association of vitamin D knowledge, attitudes and practices with vitamin D testing

From: Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Vitamin D among university students in Pakistan

VariablesN (%)P value
Never testedEver tested
Related to Knowledge about Vitamin D
Knowledge about food sources  .0433
 Only correct27 (8.5)18 (15.1) 
 Incorrect with/without correct290 (91.5)101 (84.9) 
Missing: 62   
Knowledge about health benefits  <.0001
 Bone benefits +/− other benefits227 (72.3)76 (63.9) 
 Other benefits only31 (9.9)38 (31.9) 
 Don’t know56 (17.8)5 (4.2) 
Missing: 65   
Knowledge about factors affecting Vitamin D  <.0001
 Sun exposure and UV index with/without other factors165 (52.7)45 (39.5) 
 Only other factors76 (24.3)60 (52.6) 
 Don’t know72 (23.0)9 (7.9) 
Missing: 71   
Related to Attitudes towards Vitamin D
Concerned current vitamin D levels may be too low  .168
 Agree/strongly agree118 (41.2)58 (52.3) 
 Neutral113 (40.2)35 (31.5) 
 Disagree/strongly disagree50 (17.8)18 (16.2) 
Missing: 113   
From a health perspective, it is important to get some sun exposure every day  .981
 Agree/strongly agree231 (77.3)84 (76.4) 
 Neutral50 (16.7)19 (17.3) 
 Disagree/strongly disagree18 (6.0)7 (6.4) 
Missing: 96   
Related to Practices towards Vitamin D
Ever take supplements or multivitamin containing vitamin D  <.0001
 No203 (71.7)31 (26.3) 
 Yes80 (28.3)87 (73.7) 
Missing: 104   
Vitamin D dose of supplement  .0001
  < 1000 IU22 (27.5)49 (56.3) 
 1000 IU and over4 (5.0)8 (9.2) 
 Don’t know54 (67.5)30 (34.5) 
Missing: 338   
Motivation for starting to take vitamin D  .03
 A doctor or health professional recommended34 (42.5)33 (37.9) 
 A friend or family member recommended13 (16.3)17 (19.5) 
 Read about vitamin D on the internet or in a book/magazine11 (13.8)25 (28.7) 
 Someone else in the family is taking it22 (27.5)12 (13.8) 
Missing: 338   
Primary reason for not taking vitamin D  .0005
 Never thought about it143 (70.4)13 (41.9) 
 Feel that get enough vitamin D from my diet16 (7.9)10 (32.3) 
 Feel that get enough vitamin D from sun22 (10.8)4 (12.9) 
 Prefer not to take any supplements/vitamins22 (10.8)4 (12.9) 
Missing: 271   
Time spent outdoors on a typical workday  .4
 15 min or less47 (14.7)24 (19.8) 
 16 min - < 1 h141 (44.1)48 (39.7) 
 1 h or more132 (41.3)49 (40.5) 
Missing: 64   
Time spent outdoors on a typical weekend day  .85
 15 min or less80 (24.8)31 (25.6) 
 16 min - < 1 h129 (40.1)51 (42.2) 
 1 h or more113 (35.1)39 (32.2) 
Missing: 62   
Sunscreen use  <.0001
 No201 (62.2)43 (35.5) 
 Yes122 (37.8)78 (64.5) 
Missing: 61