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Table 3 Summary table of themes associated with biology/personality, social, and cultural/environment streams found in this study

From: Analyzing big tobacco’s global youth marketing strategies and factors influencing smoking initiation by Nigeria youths using the theory of triadic influence

Biology/personalitySocialCultural/environment
Self-image
Self-efficacy
External Locus of Control
Sensation seeking
Susceptibility to nicotine
Lack of parental warmth, support, or supervision (leading to ability to hide smoking habit from parents)
Greater influence by peers than parents
Smoking specific attitudes and behaviours of role models
Strong attachment to and strong desire to please peers
Beliefs that important others (friends, parents and other role models) encourage smoking
Motivation to comply with other smokers
Cigarette availability
Media and advertising depictions of smoking
Hedonic values and short term gratification
Tolerance of deviance
Expected costs and benefits of smoking