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Table 3 Summary table of themes associated with biology/personality, social, and cultural/environment streams found in this study

From: Analyzing big tobacco’s global youth marketing strategies and factors influencing smoking initiation by Nigeria youths using the theory of triadic influence






External Locus of Control

Sensation seeking

Susceptibility to nicotine

Lack of parental warmth, support, or supervision (leading to ability to hide smoking habit from parents)

Greater influence by peers than parents

Smoking specific attitudes and behaviours of role models

Strong attachment to and strong desire to please peers

Beliefs that important others (friends, parents and other role models) encourage smoking

Motivation to comply with other smokers

Cigarette availability

Media and advertising depictions of smoking

Hedonic values and short term gratification

Tolerance of deviance

Expected costs and benefits of smoking