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Table 1 Comparison of health insurance currently available for rural-to-urban migrant workers

From: Barriers of effective health insurance coverage for rural-to-urban migrant workers in China: a systematic review and policy gap analysis

Launch year 2003 2007 1998 2006
Eligible conditions     
Eligible population Rural, employed/non-employed Urban, non-employed Urban/rural, employed/self-employed rural in urban, employed
contract Necessary Necessary
Dependence on employee Yes Yes
Coverage ratea     
In flow-out area 57.6% + 3.5% 3.4% + 3.5% 3.0% <  0.7%
In flow-in area 6.7% + 1.4% 3.7% + 1.4% 18.6% <  1.5%
Total 64.7% + 4.9% 7.2% + 4.9% 21.9% <  2.2%
Insurance typeb Limited-duration health insurance Limited-duration health insurance Limited-payment whole-life health insurance Limited-duration health insurance
Guarantee period The following one year The following one year The following one year and future The following one year
Account type Risk-sharing account Risk-sharing account Individual account + risk-sharing account Risk-sharing account
Financing strategy [6]     
Minimum financing unit Family Family Employed: employee + employer
Self-employed: individual
Employed: employee or + employer
Self-employed: individual
Financing contribution rate Family: 20%
Government subsidy:80%
Family: 30%
Government subsidy:70%
8% of payroll
employee: 2%
employer: 6%
Self-employed: 8%
Total financing amount per unit (RMB/year) NA NA 3485 * 12 * 8% = 3345.6 Low
Bundled with other welfare programs NA NA Pension insurance
On-the-job injury insurance
Unemployment insurance
Maternity insurance
Urban Minimum Standard Living Allowance Program
Housing provident fund
Yes or no
Employer’s total contribution rate [38] Approximately 30% Low
Employee or individual’s total contribution rate [38] Employed: Approximately 10%Self-employed: 8% Low
Total amount of burden for funders per unit (RMB/year/people) c Family: 220
Government subsidy: 490
Family: 220
Government subsidy: 490
employee: 3485 * 12 * 10% = 4182
employer: 3485 * 12 * 30% = 12,546
Self-employed: 3485 * 12 * 8% = 3345.6
Covered services flow-out area: Outpatient + Inpatient
flow-in area: Inpatient
Outpatient + Inpatient Outpatient + Inpatient Inpatient
Matching with RUMWs’ health need Mismatch Match Match Mismatch
Geographic consistency for RUMWs geographically separated geographically consistent geographically consistent geographically consistent
Portability, in the view of RUMWs [64, 70, 73, 77] Low Low Quite low No
Membership selectivity [38, 64, 71]     
Employee High Low
Government Low Low High
  1. aThe percentage is calculated from China Migrants Dynamic Survey, a national survey covering about 78 thousand RUMWs [78]. Several places integrated NCMS and URBMI in to one. The percentage after the plus sign is of those who took part in the integrated NCMS and URBMI
  2. b Limited-payment whole-life health insurance refers to the insurance plan that has a set period, in which an insurance holder pay premiums into the policy. Once the holder reaches the target years, premiums are no longer required but the policy’s benefits lasts the insured’s entire life. Limited-duration health insurance refers to a plan with a limited duration, paid by years or less
  3. c “220” is drawn from the payment standards for basic medical insurance of urban and rural residents in 2018 [79]; “3458” from the average payroll of RUMWs in 2017 [41]