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Table 1 Socio-demographic characteristics and association with Domestic Violence among women of reproductive age in Zimbabwe (2015)

From: Domestic violence among married women of reproductive age in Zimbabwe: a cross sectional study

Socio-demographic variableTotalNoYesχ2p-Value
44722563 (57.3)1909 (42.7)
N (%) **N (%)*N (%) **
Age   28.37< 0.001
 15–19209 (4.7)114 (54.5)95 (45.5)  
 20–291719 (38.4)932 (54.2)787 (45.8)  
 30–391717 (38.4)978 (57.0)739 (43.0)  
 40–49827 (18.5)539 (65.2)288 (34.8)  
Residence   0.0040.949
 Urban1832 (41.0)1051 (57.4)781 (42.6)  
 Rural2640 (59.0)1512 (57.3)1128 (42.7)  
Highest education level   26.36< 0.001
 No Education54 (1.2)31 (57.4)23 (42.6)  
 Primary1245 (27.8)690 (55.4)555 (44.6)  
 Secondary2840 (63.5)1607 (56.6)1233 (43.4)  
 Higher333 (7.4)235 (70.6)98 (29.4)  
Wealth index   2.4190.298
 Poor1522 (34.0)852 (56.0)670 (44.0)  
 Middle698 (15.6)395 (56.6)303 (43.4)  
 Rich2252 (50.4)1316 (58.4)936 (41.6)  
Religion   25.763< 0.001
 No religion245 (5.5)106 (43.3)139 (56.7)  
 Christians4183 (93.5)2426 (58.0)1757 (42.0)  
 Muslim13 (0.3)7 (53.8)6 (46.2)  
 Traditional26 (0.6)20 (76.9)6 (23.1)  
 Others5 (0.1)4 (80.0)1 (0.1)  
Smoking   0.7710.38
 No4453 (99.6)2554 (57.4)1899 (42.6)  
 Yes19 (0.4)9 (0.4)10 (0.5)  
Respondent currently working   13.203< 0.001
 No2529 (56.6)1509 (59.7)1020 (40.3)  
 Yes1943 (43.4)1054 (54.2)889 (45.8)  
Respondent drinking alcohol   36.47< 0.001
 No4005 (89.6)2356 (58.8)1649 (41.2)  
 Yes466 (10.4)206 (44.2)260 (55.8)  
Husband/Partner’s educational level  26.135< 0.001
 No education59 (1.3)37 (62.7)22 (37.3)  
 Primary898 (20.1)487 (54.2411 (4.8)  
 Secondary2947 (65.9)1665 (56.5)1282 (43.5)  
 Higher2947 (65.9)345 (67.3)168 (32.7)  
 Don’t know53 (1.2)28 (52.8)25 (47.2)  
Partner’s occupation   10.2970.006
 Not working627 (14.2)380 (60.6)247 (39.4)  
 Agricultural539 (12.2)278 (51.6)261 (48.4)  
 Non Agricultural3261 (73.7)1884 (57.8)1377 (42.2)  
Women empowerment   0.1770.674
 No20 (0.9)10 (50.0)10 (50.0)  
 Yes2203 (99.1)1205 (54.7)998 (45.3)  
Father beat Mother   103.49< 0.001
 No2968 (66.4)1860 (62.7)1108 (37.3)  
 Yes1504 (33.6)703 (46.7)801 (53.3)  
Parity†   3.7620.288
 None206 (4.6)131 (63.6)75 (36.4)  
 1–22027 (45.3)1163 (57.4)864 (42.6)  
 3–41721 (38.5)978 (56.8)743 (43.2)  
 5+518 (11.6)291 (56.2)227 (43.8)  
Media exposure   5.8770.015
 No982 (22.0)596 (60.7)386 (39.3)  
 Yes3490 (78.0)1967 (56.4)1523 (43.6)  
Partners drinking alcohol   150.7< 0.001
 No2718 (60.8)1756 (64.6)962 (35.4)  
 Yes1754 (39.2)807 (46.0)947 (54.0)  
Age difference† (reference)   2.4260.489
 Women same age or older than man320 (7.2)191 (59.7)129 (40.3)  
 Man older by 5 years2041 (45.7)1147 (56.2)894 (43.8)  
 Man older by 10 years1385 (31.0)799 (57.7)586 (42.3)  
 Man older by more than 10 years724 (16.2)425 (58.7)299 (41.3)  
Number of Wives†   2.293< 0.001
 Monogamy4012 (90.9)2351 (58.6)1661 (41.4)  
 Polygamy403 (9.1)187 (46.4)216 (53.6)  
  1. †Re-categorized *: column percentage, **: row percentage. p ≤ 0.05; N = number of respondents