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Table 2 Informal payments for health care services by type of payments

From: Informal payments for inpatient health care in post-health transformation plan period: evidence from Iran

Hospital typeAll (user N = 2696)Public teaching (use N = 1839)Private (user N = 525)Social Security (user N = 332)
Who received IPPhysicianOther staff*PhysicianOther staff*PhysicianOther staff*PhysicianOther staff*
Type of paymentObserved frequency, n (%)Observed frequency, n (%)Observed frequency, n (%)Observed frequency, n (%)
FormCash151 (5.6)256 (9.5)114 (6.2)72 (3.9)32 (6.1)180 (34.3)5 (1.5)4 (1.2)
In kind0 (0.0)24 (0.9)0 (0.0)24 (1.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
Cash and in-kind8 (0.3)11 (0.4)4 (0.2)3 (0.2)4 (0.8)8 (1.5)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)
IncentiveVoluntary36 (1.3)265 (9.8)36 (2.0)99 (5.4).ª162 (30.9).ª4 (1.2)
By request71 (2.6)36 (1.3)37 (2.0)10 (0.5)32 (6.1)26 (5.0)2 (0.6).ª
  1. Source: Authors’ analysis of data from Informal Patient Payments dataset
  2. Notes: * “Other staff” category includes nurses, midwives, security guards, therapists, technicians, clerical staff, and administrative staff. 1 USD = 30,170 IRR in 2016. Reported frequencies are not valid percentages and take all eligible respondents in a group as a denominator. The total values of frequencies of payments may vary because of missing answers (lack of response, refusal to respond or respondents did not know the answer).. ª indicates missing answers, where no answers in that category were given