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Table 1 Trends in LTBI-related articles published 1995–2018 overall and in the top 13 countries, by research area

From: Global trends and gaps in research related to latent tuberculosis infection

CountryThree areas combinedLaboratory sciencesClinical researchPublic health
n aRate 1 (‰ per year) bRate 2 (% per year) cAAPC 1 (% per year) dAAPC 2 (% per year) dn aProportion (%) eRate 1 (‰ per year) bRate 2 (% per year) cAAPC 1 (% per year) dAAPC 2 (% per year) dn aProportion (%) eRate 1 (‰ per year) bRate 2 (% per year) cAAPC 1 (% per year) dAAPC 2 (% per year) dn aProportion (%) eRate 1 (‰ per year) bRate 2 (% per year) cAAPC 1 (% per year) dAAPC 2 (% per year) d
All countries43520.207.417.8f19.2f180341.40.185.038.2f32.3f212248.80.2810.015.1f13.9f186342.80.268.822.9f23.0f
Top 13 countries34990.217.721.8f19.1f150042.90.205.118.2f14.7f164847.10.2910.618.7f14.4f154244.10.299.423.4f23.3f
United States15110.239.819.0f17.3f66243.80.246.216.1f13.1f67844.90.2814.311.810.475650.00.3212.222.5f21.8f
United Kingdom4870.266.516.712.721544.10.305.224.2f19.9f20742.50.328.521.7f18.7f20842.70.276.010.76.8
Italy3030.2913.622.4f19.8f12541.30.299.528.5f26.7f14246.90.3118.216.9f13.5f10635.00.3714.811.8f17.5g
Canada2840.2813.435.6f29.4f7827.50.196.715.2f12.2f16758.80.4522.029.4f28.4f14651.40.3716.734.0f11.9
South Africa2541.625.326.5f18.8f12950.82.025.420.3f13.8f12047.23.525.719.016.310240.21.274.223.6f16.6
Spain2410.3011.225.1f27.6f10141.90.277.727.5f24.0f12351.00.4915.318.812.8f11648.10.4213.923.024.1f
China2400.072.814.713.915162.90.072.623.6f19.2f7631.70.093.213.5f5.0f8736.30.104.97.33.0fg
Germany2300.148.724.1f20.9f8938.70.124.826.7f17.6f9943.00.1712.619.1f15.2f8737.80.1912.623.7f19.6f
India2240.283.021.610.1f13560.30.262.629.6f12.0f9040.20.503.314.014.16830.40.373.813.79.1
Brazil1900.326.424.7f18.8f7237.90.254.717.1f13.6f9147.90.429.215.017.3f9751.10.506.224.1f20.1f
France1850.175.135.9f23.16736.20.133.020.114.89953.50.278.231.5f33.2f7339.50.215.425.0f25.2f
Netherlands1830.287.619.8f16.3f8043.70.346.221.3f16.3f8948.60.339.715.5f10.97842.60.366.817.413.9
South Korea1730.238.120.1f18.2f6034.70.155.615.1f13.3f10661.30.3710.110.4f12.5f6135.30.3811.27.711.3g
  1. The orders of the top 13 countries are listed based on the total number of LTBI-related articles published 1995–2018
  2. a n = Number of LTBI-related articles published 1995–2018, defined as articles or reviews belonging to any of three research areas (see Additional file 1) in InCites™ (Clarivate Analytics). Because each article may be assigned to more than one research area and country in InCites, duplicates were excluded when the three areas were combined
  3. b Rate 1 (unit: ‰ per year) was calculated by first dividing the number of LTBI-related articles (area-specific and all three areas) by the total number of scientific articles (area-specific and all three areas) for each year, and then averaging the results over 24 years and multiplying by 1000 (thus the unit is ‰ per year, which is a rate rather than a proportion)
  4. c Rate 2 (unit: % per year) was calculated by first dividing the number of LTBI-related articles (area-specific and all three areas) by the number of TB articles (area-specific and all three areas) for each year, and then averaging the results over 24 years and multiplying by 100 (thus the unit is % per year, which is a rate rather than a proportion)
  5. d AAPC = Average annual percent change (unit: % per year). AAPC 1 represents the average percent change per year in the proportion of LTBI-related articles relative to all articles. AAPC 2 represents the average percent change per year in the proportion of LTBI-related articles relative to all TB-related articles
  6. e Proportion (unit: %) was calculated by dividing the number of area-specific LTBI-related articles by the number of LTBI-related articles across all three areas, over 24 years. Because the sum of the number of articles in each of the three research areas exceeded the number of articles across all three areas (excluding duplicates), the sum of the proportions of the three research areas may exceed 100%
  7. fp-value less than 0.05
  8. g Italy and China starting from 1996. South Korea starting from 1997