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Table 7 Results of multivariate analyses of average breakfast intake and body mass index (BMI) stratified by gender and school type, while controlling for confounders (data are mean and SD)

From: Breakfast consumption among Saudi primary-school children relative to sex and socio-demographic factors

VariableSchool typeBoysGirlsp-value for between subjects effects
Average breakfast intake (day/week)Public3.1 ± 2.2 (2.7–3.4)3.5 ± 2.3 (3.2–3.9)Gender: 0.414
School type: 0.053
Gender by school type interaction: 0.003
Private4.3 ± 2.3 (3.6–5.0)3.7 ± 2.3 (3.2–4.2)
BMIPublic21.8 ± 11.6 (20.1–23.5)18.1 ± 4.5 (17.4–18.8)Gender: <  0.001
School type: 0.229
Gender by school type interaction: 0.001
Private18.9 ± 4.8 (18.8–20.2)18.2 ± 4.3 (17.2–19.2)
  1. P-values for multivariate tests: child age: < 0.001; father age: 0.881 mother age: 0.006; father education: 0.054; mother education: 0.537; family income: 0.041; housing size: 0.070; gender: < 0.001; school type: 0.070; Gender x school type: < 0.001