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Table 5 Socio-demographic characteristics of the participants relative to daily or non-daily breakfast intake (mean and SD or percentage)

From: Breakfast consumption among Saudi primary-school children relative to sex and socio-demographic factors

Variable (percent within item relative to total)Breakfast Intakep-value a
DailyNon-daily
Age (years)9.1 ± 1.69.3 ± 1.80.266
Body weight (kg)34.7 ± 18.736.2 ± 19.10.332
Height (cm)132.4 ± 12.0133.6 ± 12.20.188
BMI19.1 ± 1.719.5 ± 1.70.441
Average breakfast intake (day/week)7.02.7 ± 1.7<  0.001
Parent answering the questionnaire (%)  0.596
 Mother (53.5%)21.578.5 
 Father (43.1%)19.680.4 
 Someone else (3.4%)25.774.3 
The child is living with (%)  0.692
 Both parents (94.3%)20.579.5 
 Mother (4.2%)22.777.3 
 Father (1.3%)30.869.2 
 Relative (0.2%)0.0100.0 
Number of family members living in the house (%)  0.609
 2–5 (32.6%)19.580.5 
  6-9 (60.8%)22.078.0 
 10 + (6.6%)19.180.9 
Father’s age (%)  0.476
  < 30 years (0.3%)0.0100.0 
  30-39 years (27.2%)23.776.3 
  40-49 years (46.5%)20.080.0 
 50–59 years (22.5%)20.479.6 
 60 + years (3.5%)13.986.1 
Mother’s age (%)  0.095
  < 30 years (8.7%)15.684.4 
  30-39 years (54.1%)22.577.5 
  40-49 years (32.6%)20.279.8 
 50–59 years (4.3%)13.386.7 
 60 + years (0.3%)66.733.3 
Father’s education (%)  <  0.001
 Intermediate or less (11.8%)12.387.7 
 High school (32.0%)14.885.2 
 University degree (43.2%)24.975.1 
 Post graduate degree (12.9%)30.869.2 
Mother’s education (%)  0.004
 Intermediate or less (17.9%)18.481.6 
 High school (31.9%)15.284.8 
 University degree (46.9%)25.274.8 
 Post graduate degree (3.4%)25.774.3 
Family income (%)b  0.001
 5000 SR or less (13.4%)13.686.4 
 5001–10,000 SR (26.4%)16.283.8 
 10,001–15,000 SR (25.1%)21.178.9 
 15,001–20,000 SR (18.3%)22.277.8 
 20,001–25,000 SR (8.1%)36.363.7 
 25,001 + SR (8.8%)25.374.7 
Type of housing living in (%)  0.295
 Apartment (19.8%)16.283.8 
 One floor in a villa (28.2%)22.377.7 
 Small villa (less than 500 m2) (26.0%)23.176.9 
 Medium size villa (500–1000 m2) (21.9%)19.580.5 
 Large villa (more than 1000 m2) (4.1%)26.273.8 
  1. aChi-Square tests of proportions
  2. bSR Saudi Riyal = 3.75 US$