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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the participating children

From: Breakfast consumption among Saudi primary-school children relative to sex and socio-demographic factors

VariableBoys (N = 523)Girls (N = 528)All (N = 1051)p-value a
Age (years)9.3 ± 1.7 (9.16–9.45)9.2 ± 1.7 (9.06–9.35)9.2 ± 1.7 (9.10–9.30)0.165
Body weight (kg)38.6 ± 23.2 (36.6–40.6)33.2 ± 12.9 (32.9–34.3)35.8 ± 18.9 (34.7–36.9)<  0.001
Body height (cm)133.6 ± 11.7 (132.6–134.6)133.1 ± 12.5 (132.0–134.2)133.4 ± 12.1 (132.7–134.1)0.517
Body mass index (BMI)20.8 ± 9.6 (20.0–21.6)18.1 ± 4.4 (17.7–18.5)19.4 ± 7.6 (18.9–19.9)<  0.001
Average breakfast intake (day/week)3.44 ± 2.3 (3.24–3.64)3.58 ± 2.3 (3.38–3.78)3.51 ± 2.3 (3.37–3.65)0.350
 Public school3.07 ± 2.2 (2.88–3.26)3.52 ± 2.3 (3.32–3.72)3.30 ± 2.3 (3.16–3.44)Gender by school interaction = 0.001
 Private school4.23 ± 2.3 (4.03–4.43)3.68 ± 2.3 (3.48–3.87)3.95 ± 2.3 (3.81–4.09)
Daily breakfast intake (%)19.322.120.70.285
 Public school13.321.417.30.005
 Private school32.523.627.90.070
p-value<  0.0010.736<  0.001 
  1. Data are means ± standard deviations (95% CI) or percentage
  2. aT-test for independent samples (anthropometrics), 2-way ANCOVA (with average breakfast intake (day/week) as adjusted for age) or Chi Squares tests for the proportions (daily breakfast intake (%))