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Table 3 Alcohol: Means (±SDs) for NEA, desire and acceptability by label and health consequence [ranked from highest to lowest, 1–21]

From: Image-and-text health warning labels on alcohol and food: potential effectiveness and acceptability

LabelNegative emotional arousalNegative emotional arousal by health consequenceDesire to consume productDesire to consume product by health consequenceAcceptabilityAcceptability by health consequence
Bowel Cancer 14.77 (1.47) [1]4.53 (1.57)
95% CI: 4.42–4.64
3.08 (2.32) [18]3.20 (2.37)
95% CI: 3.03–3.36
3.51 (1.92) [21]3.65 (1.90)
95% CI: 3.52–3.78
Bowel Cancer 24.65 (1.58) [2]3.06 (2.27) [19]3.67 (1.89) [18]
Bowel Cancer 34.18 (1.57) [4]3.44 (2.48) [3]3.77 (1.86) [17]
Breast Cancer 14.00 (1.63) [9]3.86 (1.62)
95% CI: 3.75–3.98
3.14 (2.28) [17]3.29 (2.42)
95% CI: 3.12–3.46
3.89 (1.90) [12]3.79 (1.88)
95% CI: 3.67–3.93
Breast Cancer 23.93 (1.59) [13]2.99 (2.16) [21]3.55 (1.84) [20]
Breast Cancer 33.65 (1.64) [21]3.73 (2.73) [1]3.95 (1.89) [8]
Liver Cirrhosis 14.03 (1.76) [8]4.01 (1.72)
95% CI: 3.89–4.13
3.23 (2.32) [15]3.26 (2.33)
95% CI: 3.09–3.42
3.98 (1.91) [5]4.01 (1.87)
95% CI: 3.88–4.14
Liver Cirrhosis 23.89 (1.65) [15]3.23 (2.33) [15]3.94 (1.87) [9]
Liver Cirrhosis 34.11 (1.74) [6]3.30 (2.37) [12]4.10 (1.82) [2]
Heart Disease 14.00 (1.56) [9]3.97 (1.62)
95% CI: 3.86–4.09
3.31 (2.31) [11]3.34 (2.38)
95% CI: 3.18–3.51
3.91 (1.81) [10]3.84 (1.80)
95% CI: 3.71–3.96
Heart Disease 24.04 (1.60) [7]3.44 (2.39) [3]3.97 (1.76) [6]
Heart Disease 33.88 (1.71) [17]3.27 (2.43) [13]3.62 (1.83) [19)
Liver Cancer 13.84 (1.59) [19]4.10 (1.60)
95% CI: 3.98–4.20
3.63 (2.60) [2]3.30 (2.43)
95% CI: 3.13–4.37
3.89 (1.89) [12]3.95 (1.86)
95% CI: 3.82–4.08
Liver Cancer 24.28 (1.63) [3]3.00 (2.20) [20]3.83 (1.91) [16]
Liver Cancer 34.12 (1.54) [5]3.26 (2.43) [14]4.12 (1.77) [1]
Liver Disease 13.95 (1.64) [12]3.91 (1.61)
95% CI: 3.80–4.02
3.43 (2.49) [5]3.39 (2.40)
95% CI: 3.22–3.56
4.05 (1.72) [3]3.97 (1.78)
95% CI: 3.85–4.10
Liver Disease 23.90 (1.63) [14]3.36 (2.40) [10]3.97 (1.83) [6]
Liver Disease 33.89 (1.56) [15]3.38 (2.32) [8]3.90 (1.78) [11]
7 types of Cancer 13.83 (1.61) [20]3.89 (1.60)
95% CI: 3.78–4.00
3.43 (2.48) [5]3.41 (2.44)
95% CI: 3.24–3.58
3.89 (1.75) [12]3.93 (1.78)
95% CI: 3.81–4.05
7 types of Cancer 23.87 (1.65) [18]3.42 (2.47) [7]4.00 (1.73) [4]
7 types of Cancer 33.96 (1.52) [11]3.37 (2.38) [9]3.89 (1.86) [12]